Electrochemistry: The research of production of electrical energy from energy released in the time of spontaneous chemical reactions, and also the usage of electric energy to lug around non-spontaneous chemical revolutions is called electrochemisattempt.

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Electrochemical Cell: A gadget which can usage chemical power to generate electrical energy, or deserve to use electrical power to cause chemical reaction is dubbed electrochemical cell. There are 2 types of electrochemical cell, viz. galvanic cell and electrolytic cell.

Galvanic Cell: The electrochemical cell which uses chemical energy to produce electric energy is referred to as galvanic cell or voltaic cell, e.g. Daniell Cell.

Electrolytic Cell: The electrochemical cell which uses electric power to cause chemical reactions is dubbed electrolytic cell.

Daniell Cell

It has actually a zinc fifty percent cell and a copper fifty percent cell. The zinc fifty percent cell consists of zinc sulphate solution, while the copper half cell includes copper sulphate solution; as electrolyte. A salt bridge connects both the fifty percent cells in order to finish the circuit.


The 2 half reactions which take place in Daniell cell are as follows:

Reduction Half Reaction: `Cu^(2+)+2e^(-)→Cu(s)`

Oxidation Half Reaction: `Zn(s)→Zn^(2+)+2e^-`

The overall redox reactivity in a Daniell Cell deserve to be created as follows:

`Zn(s) + Cu^(2+)(aq) ``→Zn^(2+)(aq) + Cu(s)`

Cathode: The fifty percent cell in which reduction reactivity takes area is dubbed cathode.

Anode: The fifty percent cell in which oxidation reaction takes location is called anode.

Electrode Potential

The potential difference in between the electrode and also electrolyte is referred to as electrode potential. At each electrode-electrolyte interchallenge, tright here is tendency of metal ions (from the solution) to deposit on the steel electrode; trying to make it positively charged. Similarly, metal atoms of the electrode have actually a tendency to go right into the solution as ions, and also leave behind the electrons at the electrode; trying to make it negatively charged. When concentrations of all the species affiliated in half-cell is unity then the electrode potential is dubbed traditional electrode potential.

Cell Potential: The potential distinction between two electrodes of a galvanic cell is called cell potential. When no current is drawn via the cell, then cell potential is dubbed electromotive force (emf). As per convention, emf of the cell is positive, and also it is given by potential of the half cell on RHS (cathode) minus the potential of the half cell on LHS (anode).

Ecell = Eappropriate - Eleft

This deserve to be presented by adhering to example:

Cell Reaction: `Cu(s) + 2Ag^+(aq)``→Cu^(2+)(aq)+2Ag(s)` ………(1)

Cathode (Reduction): `2Ag^+(aq)+2e^(-)→2Ag(s)` ………………(2)

Anode (Oxidation): `Cu(s)→Cu^(2+)(aq)+2e^-` ...............(3)

Now, emf for this cell deserve to be provided as follows:

Ecell = Eideal - Eleft = EAg+|Ag - ECu2+|Cu

Measurement of Electrode Potential:

It is not possible to measure the potential of individual half cell. We deserve to just measure the distinction between the 2 half cell potentials. This measurement provides the emf of the cell.

According to convention, a fifty percent cell called conventional hydrogen electrode is assigned a zero potential at all temperatures equivalent to adhering to reaction.


Standard Hydrogen Electrode: It consists of a platinum electrode coated which is coated with platinum babsence. This electrode is dipped in acidic solution and pure hydrogen gas is bubbled via the solution. The concentration of both the reduced and oxidized forms of hydrogen is kept at unity. This means that the pressure of hydrogen gas is 1 bar and also concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution is 1 molar.

At 298 K, the emf of the cell offers the reduction potential of the various other half cell. This cell is created by taking conventional hydrogen electrode as anode and also the other half cell as cathode. If the concentrations of the oxidized and diminished develops of the species in the appropriate hand half cell are unity, the cell potential is equal to conventional electrode potential (`E_R^Θ`)of the offered fifty percent cell.

`E^Θ= E_R^Θ- E_L^Θ`

Due to the fact that `E_L^Θ` for conventional hydrogen electrode is zero

Hence, `E^Θ= E_R^Θ`

The measured emf of the cell (containing Cu as cathode) is 0.34 V which is likewise the value for the traditional electrode potential of the half cell matching to complying with reaction.


Similarly, the measured emf of the cell (containing Zn as cathode) is -0.76V which is additionally the worth for conventional electrode potential of the half cell matching to adhering to reaction.

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The positive value of conventional potential in the first case reflects that Cu2+ ions het reduced more quickly than H+ ions. The negative worth in the second instance reflects that H+ ions deserve to oxidise zinc (or zinc have the right to alleviate hydrogen ions).

In context of this convention, the half reactivity for Daniell Cell can be composed as follows: