Define phylogeny. Surname the 3 domains of the 3 Domain device of classification and also recognize a description of each. Name the four kingdoms the the Domain Eukarya and also recognize a summary of each. Specify horizontal gene transfer.

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The earth is 4.6 billion year old and microbial life is assumed to have very first appeared in between 3.8 and also 3.9 billion years ago; in fact, 80% of Earth"s history was exclusively microbial life. Microbial life is tho the leading life type on Earth. It has been estimated that the total number of microbial cell on planet on the order of 2.5 X 1030 cells, making the the major fraction of moment-g.commass on the planet.

Phylogeny describes the evolution relationships between organisms. The three Domain System, suggest by Woese and others, is an evolutionary version of phylogeny based on differences in the order of nucleotides in the cell"s ribosom RNAs (rRNA), as well as the cell"s membrane lipid structure and its sensitivity come antimoment-g.comtics. To compare rRNA structure is especially useful. Since rRNA molecules throughout nature bring out the same function, their structure alters very little over time. Therefore similarities and dissimilarities in rRNA nucleotide sequences room a an excellent indication of exactly how related or unrelated different cells and also organisms are.

There are assorted hypotheses as to the beginning of prokaryotic and also eukaryotic cells. Because all cell are similar in nature, it is normally thought that all cells come from a typical ancestor cabinet termed the last universal usual ancestor (LUCA). This LUCAs eventually evolved into three different cell types, every representing a domain. The three domain names are the Archaea, the Bacteria, and also the Eukarya.

Bacteria, present some features of the domain names Archaea and also Eukarya.

Some of this bacteria display cell compartmentalization wherein membrane surround sections of the cell interior, such as groups of ribosom or DNA, similar to eukaryotic cells. Some divide through budding or contain sterols in their membranes, again similar to eukaryotes. Some absence peptidoglycan, comparable to eukaryotes and also archaea. It has been surmised the these bacteria migh be an intermediary step in between an ancestor that emerged from a bacter (domain Bacteria) and an archael-eukaryotic ancestor before its separation into the domains Archaea and also Eukarya.

api/deki/files/4677/esterether.jpg?revision=2" />Figure \(\PageIndex3\): Membrane Lipids that Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The Bacteria and the Eukarya have actually membranes created of unbranched fatty mountain chains attached to glycerol through ester linkages. The Archaea have membranes created of branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by ether linkages.

Archaea regularly live in too much environments and include methanogens, too much halophiles, and hyperthermophiles. One factor for this is the the ether-containing linkages in the Archaea membrane is much more stabile 보다 the ester-containing linkages in the Bacteria and Eukarya and also are far better able come withstand higher temperatures and also stronger mountain concentrations.

The Bacteria (eubacteria)

Bacteria (also well-known as eubacteria or "true bacteria") space prokaryotic cells the are typical in human daily life, encounter many an ext times 보다 the archaebacteria. Eubacteria deserve to be found practically everywhere and also kill thousands upon thousands of people each year, but also serve together antimoment-g.comtics producers and also food digesters in our stomachs. The Bacteria own the complying with characteristics:

Bacteria are prokaryotic cells. Like the Eukarya, they have actually membranes written of unbranched fatty acid chains attached come glycerol by ester linkages (Figure \(\PageIndex3\)). The cell wall surfaces of Bacteria, unlike the Archaea and also the Eukarya, save peptidoglycan. Bacteria space sensitive to timeless antibacterial antimoment-g.comtics yet are resistant to many antimoment-g.comtics that affect Eukarya. Bacteria save on computer rRNA that is unique to the Bacteria as indicated by the presence molecular regions distinctly various from the rRNA the Archaea and Eukarya.

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Bacteria incorporate mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria.