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Term articular cartilage
Definition Thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints.

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Term bone depressions
Definition Concave, indented areas or openings in bones.
Term bone head
Definition A rounded, knoblike end of a long bone, separated from the shaft of the bone by a narrow portion.
Term bone markings
Definition Specific features of individual bones.
Term bone processes
Definition Projections or outgrowths of bones.
Term calcaneus
Definition The larges of the tarsals, also known as the heel bone.
Term cancellous bone
Definition Spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone.
Term carpals
Definition The bones of the wrist.
Term cervical vertebrae
Definition Vertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 through C7
Term coccyx
Definition The fifth segment of the vertebral column, located at the very end of the vertebral column, "tailbone"
Term compact bone
Definition Hard outer shell of the bone.
Term condyle
Definition Knucklelike projection at the end of a bone.
Term crest
Definition Distinct border or ridge, as in iliac crest.
Term diaphysis
Definition Main shaftlike portion of a bone.
Term epiphyseal line
Definition A layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of a bone; also known as the ephiphyseal plate.
Term epiphysis
Definition The end of a bone.
Term ethmoid bone
Definition Lies just behind the nasal bone, in front of the sphenoid bone.
Term false ribs
Definition Rib pairs 8 through 10, which connected to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front.
Term femur
Definition The thigh bone. Longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body.
Term fibula
Definition The more slender of the two lower leg bones.
Term fissure
Definition A groove or depression in a bone.
Term flat bones
Definition Bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum.
Term floating ribs
Definition Rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front.
Term fontanelle or fontanel
Definition Space between the bones of an infant"s cranium; "soft spot".
Term foramen
Definition Hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass.
Term fossa
Definition Hollow or concave depression in a bone.
Term frontal bone
Definition Forms the forehead and the upper part of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs.
Term haversian canals
Definition System of small canals within compact bone that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
Term hematopoiesis
Definition The normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
Term humerus
Definition Upper arm bone.
Term hyoid bone
Definition Located just above the larynx and below the mandible. Serves as a point of attachment for muscles of the tongue and throat.
Term intercostal spaces
Definition Spaces between the ribs.
Term intervertebral disk
Definition A flat, circular platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion between the vertebrae.
Term lacrimal bones
Definition Two small bones that are paper thin and shaped somewhat like a fingernail, located at the inner corner of each eye forming the sidewall of the nasal cavity and the middle wall of the eye orbit.
Term long bones
Definition Bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur.
Term lumbar vertebrae
Definition The vertebrae of the lower back, L1 through L5.
Term mandibular bone
Definition aka mandible. Lower jaw bone. The largest, strongest bone of the face, and the only moveable bone of the skull.
Term maxillary bones
Definition Bones of the upper jaw. These two bones form not only the upper jaw but the hard palate.
Term medullary cavity
Definition The center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing yellow marrow.
Term metacarpals
Definition The bones of the hand.
Term metatarsals
Definition The bones of the foot.
Term nasal bones
Definition Two slender bones that give shape to the nose by forming the upper part of the bridge.
Term nasal conchae
Definition Two inferior bones that help to complete the nasal cavity by forming the side and lower wall.
Term neck
Definition A constricted or narrow section that connects with the head, as in the neck connecting to the head or the neck of the femur.
Term occipital bones
Definition Form the back of the head and the base of the skull.
Term orthopedics
Definition The specialty that deals with the prevention and correction of disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Term ossification
Definition The conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone; the formation of bone.
Term osteoblasts
Definition Immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue.
Term osteoclasts
Definition Large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue.
Term osteocytes
Definition Mature bone cells.
Term palatine bones
Definition Two bones shaped like the letter L, they have a vertical and a horizontal portion.
Term parietal bones
Definition Form the top and the upper sides of the cranium, behind the frontal bones.
Term patella
Definition The knee bone, or kneecap.
Term periosteum
Definition The thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone.
Term phalanges
Definition The bones of the fingers, or the toes.
Term radius
Definition One of the two lower arm bones. It is on the lateral, or thumb, side of the arm.
Term red bone marrow
Definition The soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production.
Term resorption
Definition The process of removing or digesting old bone tissue.
Term sacrum
Definition The fourth segment of the vertebral column located below the lumbar vertebrae. Single triangular shaped bone that resulted from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child.
Term sesamoid bones
Definition Irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint, as in the kneecap.
Term short bones
Definition Bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat boxshaped, such as the wrist bone.
Term sinus
Definition An opening or hollow space in a bone, a cavity within a bone.
Term sphenoid bone
Definition Bat-shaped bone located at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bones.
Term spine
Definition A sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest.
Term stenosis
Definition An abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure.
Term sulcus
Definition A groove or depression in a bone; a fissure.
Term sutures
Definition Immovable joints, such as those of the cranium.
Term talus
Definition The tarsal that joins with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.
Term tarsals
Definition The bones of the ankle.
Term temporal bones
Definition Form the lower sides and part of the base of the skill, contain the middle and inner ear structures.
Term thoracic vertebrae
Definition The 12 vertebrae of the chest, T1 through T12.
Term tibia
Definition The larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. Also called the shin bone.
Term trabeculae
Definition Needlelike bony spicules within cancellous bone that contribute to the spongy appearance. Their distribution along lines of stress adds to the strength of the bone.
Term trochanter
Definition Large bony process located below the neck of the femur.
Term true ribs
Definition The first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front.
Term tubercle
Definition A small rounded process of a bone.
Term tuberosity
Definition An elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone.
Term ulna
Definition The second of the two lower arm bones. It is on the medial, or little finger, side of the arm.
Term vertebral foramen
Definition A large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord.
Term vomer
Definition Thin, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum.
Term yellow marrow
Definition Located in the diaphysis of long bones, yellow marrow consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells.
Term zygomatic bones
Definition These two bones, one on each side of the face, form the high part of the cheek and the outer border of the eye orbits.
Term osteoporosis
Definition Means porous bones; bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density.
Term osteomalacia
Definition A disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. This disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weight-bearing bones. Called rickets in children.
Term osteomyelitis
Definition Local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
Term Ewing"s sarcoma
Definition A malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys.
Term osteogenic sarcoma
Definition A malignant tumor arising from bone. Also known as osteosarcoma, it is the most common malignant bone tumor.
Term osteochondroma
Definition The most common benign bone tumor.
Term Paget"s disease
Definition A nonmetabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts.
Term spinal stenosis
Definition A narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramini (openings) of the lumbar spinal canal. The narrowing causes pressure on the never roots prior to their exit from the foramini.
Term talipes equinovarus
Definition Clubfoot.
Term kyphosis
Definition An abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback.
Term lordosis
Definition An abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as swayback.
Term scoliosis
Definition An abnormal lateral (sideward) curvature of a portion of the spine. May be to the left or the right.
Term fracture
Definition A broken bone; a sudden breaking of a bone.
Term closed fracture
Definition A break in a bone but no open wound; also known as a simple fracture.
Term open fracture
Definition A break in a bone, as well as an open wound in the skin; also known as a compound fracture.
Term complete fracture
Definition A break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone.
Term incomplete fracture
Definition A break that does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone, one side of the bone is broken and one side is bent; also known as a greenstick fracture.
Term compression fracture
Definition Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other.
Term impacted fracture
Definition Occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.
Term comminuted fracture
Definition A break that occurs when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone.
Term Colles" fracture
Definition A break that occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones.
Term hairline fracture
Definition A minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment; also known as a stress fracture.
Term pathological fracture
Definition Occurs when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break.
Term occult fracture
Definition A fracture that cannot be detected by x-ray until several weeks after the injury.
Term closed reduction
Definition A treatment of a fracture that consists of aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction without making an incision into the skin.
Term open reduction
Definition A treatment of a fracture that consists of realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery.
Term bone scan
Definition Involved the intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue. Approximately 3 hours later, the skeleton is scanned with a gamma camera moving from one end of the body to the other.
Term bone marrow aspiration
Definition The process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a microscope.
Term dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
Definition A noninvasive procedure that measures bone density. An X-ray machine generates the energy photons that pass through the bones. A computer then evaluates the amount of radiation absorbed by the bones.
Term C1, C2, C3,...
Definition cervical vertebrae 1, 2, 3,...
Term DEXA
Definition dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
Term DIP
Definition distal interphalangeal (joint)
Term Fx
Definition fracture
Term L1, L2, L3,...
Definition lumbar vertebrae 1, 2, 3,...
Term LLE
Definition left lower extremity
Term LUE
Definition left upper extremity
Term MCP
Definition metacarpophalangeal (joint)
Term MTP
Definition metatarsophalangeal (joint)
Term PIP
Definition proximal interphalangeal (joint)
Term RLE
Definition right lower extremity
Term RUE
Definition right upper extremity
Term S1
Definition sacrum
Term T1, T2, T3,...
Definition thoracic vertebrae 1, 2, 3,...
Term THA
Definition total hip arthroplasty
Term THR
Definition total hip replacement
Term TKA
Definition total knee arthroplasty
Term TKR
Definition total knee replacement
Term TMJ
Definition temporomandibular joint
Term sternum
Definition aka breastbone; flat, elongated bone that forms the midline portion of the front of the thorax.
Term manubrium
Definition broad upper end of the sternum
Term scoliosis
Definition an abnormal lateral curvature of a portion of the spine.
Term orthopedist
Definition physician who specializes in orthopedics
Term chiropractic
Definition a health care profession that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, with special emphasis on the spinal column
Term mastoid process
Definition large projection of the temporal bone which serves as a point of attachment for muscles.
Term medial malleolus
Definition bony prominence on the inner aspect of the ankle
Term acromion
Definition somewhat spoon-shaped projection of the scapula that connects with the clavicle to form the highest point of the shoulder.

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Term lateral malleolus
Definition bony prominence on the outer aspect of the ankle
Term laminectomy
Definition the surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae to relieve the pressure on the spinal cord
Term pelvic girdle
Definition the bony ring formed by the hip bones with the sacrum and coccyx
Term vertebrae
Definition 24 "backbones"; aka the spinal column
Term clavicle
Definition aka collarbone; a slender bone with 2 shallow curves that helps to support the shoulder by connecting laterally to the scapula and anteriorly to the sternum.
Term zygomatic bones
Definition form the high part of the cheek and the outer border of the eye orbits
Term symphysis pubis
Definition point of connection of the two pubic bones
Term costal cartilage
Definition means by which true ribs attach to the sternum