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The following are lists of polyatomic ions. These may be helpful when completing ChemSkill Builder and Homework problems. The exams will include only the nine we have focused on:
|The 9 polyatomic ions to know and write on your notecard: |
|Name ||Charge ||Formula |
|Hydroxide ||1- ||OH- |
|Cyanide ||1- ||CN- |
|Nitprice ||1- ||NO3- |
|Acetate ||1- ||CH3COO- |
|Carbonate ||2- ||CO32- |
|Phospdislike ||3- ||PO43- |
|Hydronium ||1+ ||H3O+ |
|Ammonium ||1+ ||NH4+ |
|Sulfate ||2- ||SO42- |
Other polyatomic ions:
|bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate)||HCO31-|
|bisulfate (hydrogen sulfate)||HSO41-|
|dihydrogen phosphate||H2PO41- |
|hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)||HCO31-|
** Exception to prefix rulesNOTE: -ite ending means one less oxygen than the -ate form. PREFIXES: per- = one more oxygen than -ate hypo- = one less oxygen than -ite
Ions arranged by familyPolyatomic cations other than ammonium, hydronium, and mercury(I) aren"t usually encountered in general chemistry. Most common polyatomic anions occur in "families". All members of the family share the same central element and the same charge. There are three common types of variations within the family: Different members of the family can have numbers of oxygens. Each member of the family can combine with hydrogen ions to partially neutralize their negative charge. Some members of the family can have sulfur substituted for oxygen. Other variations exist but are less common.
Table of common polyatomic cations, arranged by family.carbon
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Alternate names are given in italics. Select the name of the ion for information about its occurrence, uses, properties, and structure. Blank entries are uncommon or unstable; for a complete table see the Field Guide to Polyatomic Ions.
Common naming practices
|If you can remember the formula of the ion whose name ends with ate, you canusually work out the formulas of the other family members as follows: |
modify stem name with:Some anions can capture hydrogen ions. For example, carbonate (CO32- can capture an H+ to produce hydrogen carbonate HCO3- (often called bicarbonate). Each captured hydrogen neutralizes one minus charge on the anion.
|-ate||a common form, containing oxygen ||chlorate, ClO3-nitrate, NO3-sulfate, SO42-|
|-ite||one less oxygen than -ate form||chlorite, ClO2-sulfite, SO32-nitrite, NO2- |
|per-, -ate||same charge, but contains one more oxygen than -ate form||perchlorate, ClO4-perbromate, BrO4- |
|hypo-, -ite||same charge, but contains one less oxygen than the -ite form||hypochlorite, ClO-hypobromite, BrO- |
|thio-||replace an O with an S||thiosulfate, S2O32-thiosulfite, S2O22-|
|modify stem name with:||meaning||examples|
|hydrogenor bi-||(1) captured H+ ions||hydrogen carbonate, HCO3- (a.k.a. bicarbonate)hydrogen sulfate, HSO4- (a.k.a. bisulfate)|
|dihydrogen||(2) captured H+ ions||dihydrogen phosphate, H2PO4- |
Table of common polyatomic cations, arranged by charge. Alternate names are given in italics. Select the name of the ion for information about its occurrence, uses, properties, and structure.
|Hg22+||mercury(I) or mercurous|
|HCO3-||hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate|
|HSO4-||hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate|
|Hydrogen Sulfate HSO4-|
|Hydrogen Phosphate HPO42-|
Polyatomic Formulas - Polyatomic ions are made from more that one atom. This group of atoms act together as one unit with a single charge. Each of the polyatomic ions have a unique name.
Table of Polyatomic Ions
|ammonium , NH4 +||acetate, C2H302-||carbonate, CO32-||phosphate, PO43-|
|bicarbonate, HCO3 -||chromate,CrO42-|
|bisulfate, HSO4 -||dichromate,Cr2O72-|
|bisulfite, HSO3 -||oxalate,C2O42-|
Most of the polyatomic ions are anions. The formula for the compound will contain both a cation and an anion to balance the overall charge of the compound.
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The cation is named normally and the anion is given the name of the actual anion. An easy way to recognize these formulas is the fact that they are made up of more that two elements and, usually, the first element is a metal.