Ions kind when electrons are transferred amongst atoms. For example, a group 1A element, such together potassium, tends to move one electron to various other atoms, causing it to kind a net optimistic charge, in this situation K . Together ions through net optimistic charges are called cations. Ions through net an unfavorable charges space anions. Nonmetal atoms, such as chlorine, have tendency to expropriate electrons from various other atoms. Chlorine tends to acquire a solitary electron, developing the anion Cl .

You are watching: What is bond dissociation energy and how does it affect carbon compounds


Positive ion are smaller sized than the atoms from i m sorry they are formed, but negative ions are larger than the atom from which they room formed. Explain why this is so.
When one electron is included to one atom, the attraction of the cell nucleus for any one electron decreases and also the dimension of the ion"s radius increases. When an electron is eliminated from one atom, there is an increase in the nuclear attraction experienced by the remaining electrons. Consequently, the continuing to be electrons are drawn closer come the nucleus.
Describe the fads in electronegativity within teams and throughout periods in the regular table. Provide examples
Electronegativity worths decrease from peak to bottom in ~ a group, and from appropriate to left throughout a period. Because that example, rubidium is much less electronegative than lithium. Lithium is much less electronegative than fluorine.
The electron construction of the noble gases are exceptionally stable. The octet dominion states that, in chemistry reactions, facets gain or shed electrons to attain a noble gas configuration. This stable configuration is called an octet because it consists of 8 valence electron (s ns ), 2 from the outermost s orbital and also 6 from the outermost p orbital. Oxygen has actually the electron configuration 1s 2s 2p . Once oxygen reaction to kind ionic compounds, it completes that octet by acquiring two electrons from the element it reaction with. These 2 electrons include to the ns orbital the oxygen, providing it the electron construction (1s 2s 2p ) of neon.
In one ionic bond, oppositely charged ion are held together through the electronic force of attraction the exists in between oppositely charged particles. In the ionic compound, anions and cations are existing in a ratio that causes the full charge ~ above the compound to be zero. Sodium phosphide, Na P, has actually three sodium ion for every phosphide ion. This ratio insures a zero complete charge given the charges on the two individual ions (Na = 1 , p = 3-).
In this arrangement, like-charged ions space shielded from each other and also electronic repulsion is reduced. Also, the force of attraction between oppositely charged ion is maximized. Every of these events contributes come a lowering of energy and rise in stability of the ionic compound.
Explain exactly how a pure metal is hosted together. Include a meaning of a metallic link in her explanation.
A item of pure metal, such together copper or iron, is composed not of metal atoms, but of very closely packed cations. The cations space surrounded through mobile valence electrons that are cost-free to drift indigenous one component of the steel to another. Metallic bonds an outcome from the attraction in between the free-floating valence electrons and the positively charged steel ions.
Bond dissociation energy is the energy required to rest a solitary bond. The better the link dissociation energy, the more stable the compound. Due in component to the high shortcut dissociation energy of carbon-carbon bonds, carbon compounds are not very reactive chemically.
Yes, sulfur and also phosphorus can expand the octet. They deserve to have 12 or 10 valence electrons, respectively, when an unified with little halogens. In PCl , phosphorus has 10 valence electrons
Explain what is expected by VSEPR theory. Give an instance of just how VSEPR theory deserve to be applied to predict the shape of a molecule.
VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) theory says that due to the fact that electron pairs repel, molecules readjust their shapes so the the valence-electron pairs, both bonding and non-bonding, space as much apart as possible. Methane, CH , because that example, has four bonding electron pairs and also no unshared pairs. The bonding pairs room farthest apart when the angle in between the central carbon and each that its attached hydrogens is 109.5 . This is the angle the is it was observed experimentally.
A polar molecule is one in i beg your pardon one end of the molecule has actually a slightly an unfavorable electric charge and the other finish has a contempt positive electric charge. An instance of a polar molecule is water. The oxygen atom in water develops a slightly an unfavorable charge and the hydrogen atoms develop slightly confident charges since of the distinction in electronegativity in between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
What determines the degree of polarity in a bond? Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, and also ionic bond in state of loved one polarity.
The family member electronegativity the the two bonded atom determines the polarity of a bond. If the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms is less than 0.4, the bond is nonpolar covalent. If the distinction in electronegativities between the two atoms is 0.4 to 1.0, the bond is middle polar covalent. If the distinction in electronegativities between the two atoms is 1.0 to 2.0, the shortcut is extremely polar covalent. If the distinction in electronegativities between the two atoms is an ext than 2.0, the link is ionic.
What are dispersion forces? just how is the toughness of dispersion forces related come the variety of electrons in a molecule? Give an example of molecule that space attracted to each various other by dispersion forces.

See more: What Does Seeing A Dove Mean Ing & The Dove Spirit Animal, Dove Symbolism


Dispersion pressures are the weakest of all molecular interactions, and also are thought to be led to by the activity of electrons. Generally, the strength of dispersion pressures increases together the number of electrons in a molecule increases. Diatomic molecule of halogen facets are an example of molecules whose attraction because that one an additional is caused by dispersion forces.
})}else;window.location.assign("https://moment-g.com/explanations/textbook-solutions/modern-chemistry-1st-edition-9780544817845");">
*

})}else;window.location.assign("https://moment-g.com/explanations/textbook-solutions/chemistry-matter-change-florida-9780079042392");">
*

})}else;window.location.assign("https://moment-g.com/explanations/textbook-solutions/foundations-of-physical-science-florida-edition-9781604311228");">
*

})}else;window.location.assign("https://moment-g.com/explanations/textbook-solutions/general-chemistry-principles-and-modern-applications-11th-edition-9780132931281");">
*

General Chemistry: values and modern Applications11th EditionBissonnette, Herring, Madura, Petrucci
window.moment-g.com<"productClickLinkData"> = <"name":"Chemistry Acids and Base Quiz","id":"40765324","price":"","category":"premium content","variant":"study guide","position":"","brand":"LittleGilligan">; QLoad("moment-g.com.productClickLinkData"); return;})}elsewindow.moment-g.com<"productClickLinkData"> = <"name":"Chemistry Acids and also Base Quiz","id":"40765324","price":"","category":"premium content","variant":"study guide","position":"","brand":"LittleGilligan">; QLoad("moment-g.com.productClickLinkData"); return;;window.location.assign("https://moment-g.com/40765324/chemistry-acids-and-base-quiz-flash-cards/");" id="1-40765324">