Black Codes laws that to be passed across the southern in response tothe Civil rights Act of 1866,restricting blacks’ flexibility of speech, freedom of assembly, andlegal rights, and also outlawing unemployment, loitering, vagrancy, andinterracial marriages. The codes to be one of countless techniques thatsouthern whites supplied to save blacks properly enslaved because that decadesafter the abolition of slavery. Part black codes showed up as earlyas 1865.

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A nickname for northerners who relocated to the southern afterthe civil War, called for their propensity to bring their possessionswith castle in large carpetbags. Though part carpetbaggers migratedto strike it rich, many did therefore to promote modernization, education,and civil civil liberties for former slaves in the South. Part carpetbaggershad significant roles in the brand-new Republican state legislatures,much to the dismay of white southerners.

Civil rights Actof 1866

A invoice that guarantee blacks the right to sue,serve ~ above juries, testify together witnesses againstwhites, and enter into legal contracts. The act didnot offer blacks the best to vote, due to the fact that most Radical Republicans in 1866 remainedunconvinced that black suffrage to be a necessity. When an ext Radicalswere chosen to Congress that autumn, however, they go considermaking black color suffrage a need for a state’s readmission intothe Union. The act at some point led to the Fourteenth Amendment tothe Constitution.

Civil legal rights Actof 1875

A bill the forbade racial discrimination in all publicplaces. The act to be the Radical Republicans’ last legislativeeffort to protect the polite liberties of previous slaves. Democratsin the residence opposed the invoice from the outset and consequently madesure that remained mostly ineffectual.

Civil RightsCases the 1883

A series of can be fried Court instances that countered RadicalRepublican legislation passed during Reconstruction and also severelyrestricted blacks’ polite liberties. The Court ruled that the CivilRights act of 1875wasunconstitutional, citing the reality that the Fourteenth Amendmentprohibited gyeongju discrimination by the U.S. Government yet notby individuals. The decision was supplied to justification racist policiesin both the South and also the North.

Compromise the 1877

A political agreement that made Rutherford B. Hayes chairman (ratherthan Samuel J. Tilden) in exchange because that a finish withdrawal offederal troops indigenous the South, efficiently ending Reconstruction. Whenneither Hayes no one Tilden won sufficient electoral votes to come to be president,the election fell into dispute, and Congress pass the ElectoralCount Act come recount renowned votes in three challenged states.The distinct counting committee identified by just one poll thatHayes had received more votes in the three states and was thereforethe following president of the unified States. Democrats accused the Republican-majoritycommittee that bias, therefore the compromise of 1877 wasstruck to resolve the politics crisis.

Crédit Mobilier

A fake construction company formed in the 1860sby corrupt Union Pacific railroad officials who hired themselvesas builders at inflated rates to gain substantial profits. The railroadexecutives additionally bribed dozens of congressmen and also members of UlyssesS. Grant’s cabinet, consisting of Vice chairman SchuylerColfax. Ultimately exposed in 1872,the work forced plenty of politicians come resign and also became the worstscandal that occurred during Grant’s presidency.

Depression of 1873

An economic depression—caused by negative loans and also overspeculation inrailroads and also manufacturing—that rotate the North’s fist awayfrom Reconstruction. Poor whites and blacks were hit hardest, andunemployment soared as high together 15 percent.The depression helped southern democracy in their search to regainpolitical importance in the South and also diminished the reelectionprospects for Republican candidates, who advocated hard-money policiesand little immediate financial relief. Indeed, Democrats brushed up thecongressional poll of 1874 andregained the majority in the home of Representatives because that the firsttime due to the fact that 1856,effectively finishing Radical Reconstruction.

Fifteenth revised

A constitution amendment, validated in 1870,that provided all American males the right to vote, regardless of raceor wealth. The revised enfranchised blacks and also poor landless whiteswho had actually never to be able come vote. Radical Republicans requiredsouthern says to ratify the amendment in order to it is in readmittedinto the Union. The amendment’s ratification angered many suffragettes whowere fighting for a woman’s ideal to vote.

First ReconstructionAct

A bill, pass by Radical Republicans inCongress in 1867,that cure Southern says as separated territories. Sometimes calledthe armed forces Reconstruction action or the repair Act, the first ReconstructionAct separated the southern into five districts, each governed through martiallaw. It to be the first of a collection of harsher bills the the Radicalspassed the year.

Fourteenth modification

A constitution amendment, drafted by Radical Republicans in 1866 andratified in 1868,that ensured the the liberties guaranteed to blacks in the CivilRights action of 1866 couldnot it is in taken away. Choose the Civil civil liberties Act, the Fourteenth Amendmentgranted citizenship to every Americans nevertheless of race (exceptNative Americans, that did not gain full citizenship until the twentiethcentury). The amendment subsequently reversed the can be fried Court’s DredScott v. Sanforddecision that 1857.

Freedmen’s Bureau

A government firm established by conference in 1865 todistribute food, supplies, and also confiscated floor to former slaves.Although the bureau’s worth confirmed questionable because of corruptionwithin the organization and external push from southern whites (includingPresident Andrew Johnson), it successfully developed schoolsfor blacks transparent the South.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

A mystery society formed in Tennessee in 1866 toterrorize blacks. Racism whites developed the KKK as aviolent reaction come Congress’s passage of the Civil RightsAct the 1866.Within a few years, the Klan had many branches in every southernstate. Klansmen donned white sheets and also threatened, beat, and also evenkilled “upstart” blacks. Congress finally passed the Ku KluxKlan Act in 1871 tocurb Klan task and regain order in the South.

Ku Klux Klan Actof 1871

A congressional bill passed in an answer to extensive KuKlux Klan violence throughout the South. The Klan had actually beenintimidating, beating, and also murdering blacks in every southerly statesince 1866, andmany blacks, though recently enfranchised, avoided the polls out offear for your lives. Back violence spiraled the end of controlby the so late 1860sand early on 1870sbecause state legislatures turn a blind eye, the Ku Klux KlanAct restored order in the South in time for the elections of 1872.

Liberal Republicans

A political party the was created prior to the electionsof 1872 through Republicanswho disagreed through moderate and also Radical Republican ideologies.The Liberal Republicans campaigned on a communication of governmentreform, lessened government spending, and anti-corruption measures.They also wanted to end military repair in the southern andbring about a swift reconstruction of the Union.

Military ReconstructionAct

See First reconstruction Act.


President Andrew Johnson’s setup for Reconstruction,which lasted from 1865–1867.Johnson, a Democrat from Tennessee, enabled southern says to reenterthe Union, however only ~ 10 percentof the voting population took loyalty oaths come the unified States.Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction was comparable toLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, despite Johnson pardonedthousands the high-ranking Confederate officials. Johnson was alsoa critic of the Freedmen’s Bureau and also attempted todo away through the program. Presidential Reconstruction ended when RadicalRepublicans took manage of congress in 1867 in thewake of Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” speeches.

Proclamationof Amnesty and Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Reconstructionproposal to an increase support because that the war in the phibìc andpersuade the southern to surrender. The proclamation outlined Lincoln’s Ten-PercentPlan, which asserted that secessioniststates might be readmitted right into the Union after 10 percentof voters swore your allegiance come the U.S. Government.

Radical Reconstruction

The period from 1867–1877 as soon as RadicalRepublicans managed the residence of Representatives and also theSenate, advocating for civil liberties and enfranchisement because that formerslaves. The party, recognized for that is harsh plans toward the secessionistSouth, passed gradual legislation favor the Civil RightsAct of 1866,the First and second Reconstruction Acts,the Ku Klux Klan Act that 1871,the Civil legal rights Act the 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and FifteenthAmendments.

Radical Republicans

A Reconstruction-era politics party recognized for its progressivelegislation and also harsh plans toward the South. The Radical Republicanspassed the Civil rights Act that 1866,the First restoration Act, the Second ReconstructionAct, the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871,the Civil civil liberties Act of 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and also Fifteenth Amendments.Radical republic in the House also impeached president AndrewJohnson in 1868 butwere unable to secure sufficient votes for a conviction in the Senate.

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Reconstruction Act

See First reconstruction Act.

Resumption Act

An act the was passed in 1875 toreduce the quantity of money circulating in the economic climate duringthe Depression that 1873.Although the Resumption act proved advantageous in the long run, itsshort-term results on countless Americans were detrimental. Democratsused these tough times to get votes: Samuel J. Tilden endedup receiving much more popular votes 보다 Rutherford B. Hayes inthe debated election that 1876.


White Unionist republic in the south who participatedin efforts to modernize and also transform the an ar after the CivilWar. Though plenty of scalawags had influential duties inthe new state governments, southern whites understood them traitors.

Second ReconstructionAct

An action passed by Radical republic in 1867 thatput commonwealth troops in charge of voter it is registered in the South.


An farming production mechanism in the southern throughwhich wealthy landowners leased individual plots of land on plantations towhite and black sharecroppers in exchange for a percentageof the yearly productivity of crops. Blacks wanted this mechanism to wagelabor because it provided them a feeling of independence and responsibility. Ironically,though, sharecroppers had actually less autonomy 보다 wage laborers, becausehigh fan bound them to the land, and most former slaves workedon plots own by their former masters. By 1880,most southern blacks had become sharecroppers.

Slaughterhouse Cases

A series of can be fried Court situations (involving a new Orleansslaughterhouse) that properly rendered the Fourteenth Amendment useless.The judge ruled that the amendment safeguarded citizens from rightsinfringements only on a federal level, no on a state level. This decisionallowed state legislatures come suspend blacks’ legal and also civil rightsas outlined in the Constitution.

“Swing Aroundthe Circle”

The name for a group of speeches in which chairman AndrewJohnson blamed Radical Republicans for the slownessof Reconstruction and also race riots in the south after the passageof the Civil legal rights Act the 1866. Johnsontraveled throughout the country, speak out versus Republicans, pro-warDemocrats, blacks, and also anyone else who tested him. Consequently,his often-abrasive speeches further tarnished the autonomous Party’salready scarred reputation and persuaded many northerners come voteRepublican in the congressional elections of 1866.

Ten-Percent Plan

Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction,under i m sorry secessionist states could be readmitted to the Uniononly after 10 percentof their voting populace took a loyalty oath come the Union. Lincoln agreedto pardon most Confederates yet made no provision because that safeguardingthe rights of previous slaves. Numerous Radical Republicans believedhis setup was also lenient.

Tenure the Office act

A bill that Congress passed throughout Andrew Johnson’spresidency that required Johnson to consult Congress prior to dismissingany congressionally appointed federal government official. When Johnsonignored Congress and fired Secretary of battle Edwin M. Stanton,the Radical republicans in the residence impeached Johnsonon the grounds the he had actually violated the Tenure that Office Act. AlthoughJohnson technically did violate the act, the Radicalsimpeached him mostly out of revenge, angry the he had actually excludedCongress from the reconstruction process. The Senate later acquittedJohnson, therefore he to be not removed from office.

Thirteenth Amendment

A constitution amendment, validated in 1865,that abolished slavery in the united States. Southern claims wererequired come acknowledge and ratify the amendment prior to they werereadmitted to the Union.

United Statesv. Cruikshank

An 1876 SupremeCourt situation that severely restricted Congress’s ability to enforcethe Ku Klux Klan plot of 1871.The Court rule that just states, no the U.S. Government, had actually theright come prosecute Klansmen under the law. There is no the danger offederal prosecution, the Ku Klux Klan and also other racistwhites had free reign to terrorize blacks throughout the South.

Wade-Davis Bill

An 1864 billthat stipulated that southern states might reenter the Union onlyafter 50 percent oftheir voters pledged allegiance to the united States. RadicalRepublicans pass the invoice in an answer to AbrahamLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, which castle believedwas as well lenient. Lincoln eventually pocket-vetoed thebill, so it did no come into effect. The Wade-Davis bill was first of numerous clashes between the White House and also Congress for controlover the repair process.

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Whiskey Ring

A team of federal government officials who embezzled millionsof dollars of excise tax revenue native the U.S. Treasury. The WhiskeyRing scandal damaged president Ulysses S. Grant’sreputation and affected central figures in the White House—the president’sown personal secretary to be indicted in the conspiracy yet was acquittedafter give testified come his innocence.