The vertebral column, likewise called the spine or backbone, is consisted of of multiple vertebrae that space separated by spongy disks and classified right into 4 distinctive areas. The cervical area consists of 7 bony components in the neck; the thoracic spine is composed of 12 bony components in the ago area; the lumbar spine is composed of 5 bony segment in the lower ago area; 5 sacral* bones; and also 4 coccygeal* bones (the variety of coccygeal bones can vary from 3 come 5).
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(* by adulthood, the 5 sacral vertebrae fuse to form 1 bone, and the 4 coccygeal vertebrae fuse to form 1 bone.)
Facts around the pelvis
The pelvis is a basin-shaped framework that supports the spinal column and protects the abdominal organs. It includes the following:
Sacrum. A spade-shaped bone that is developed by the blend of 5 initially separate sacral vertebrae.
Coccyx (also called the tail bone). This is formed by the fusion of 4 initially separated coccygeal bones.
Pelvic (hip) bones. these are:
Ilium. This is the broad, flaring section of the pelvis.
Pubis. This is the lower, anterior or front part of the pelvis.
Ischium. This is the part of the pelvis that forms the i know good joint.
Facts about the shoulder
The shoulder is consisted of of number of layers, consisting of the following:
Bones. These incorporate the collarbone (clavicle), the shoulder tongue (scapula), and the upper arm bone (humerus).
Joints. this facilitate movement and include the following:
Sternoclavicular joint. This is wherein the clavicle meets the sternum.
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint. This is where the clavicle meets the acromion.
Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint). A ball-and-socket joint the facilitates forward, circular, and backward motion of the shoulder.
Ligaments. A white, shiny, versatile band of fibrous tissue that holds joints together and also connects the various bones, consisting of the following:
The share capsule is a group of ligaments that affix the humerus to the socket of the shoulder share on the scapula to stabilize the shoulder and keep that from dislocating.
Ligaments that connect the clavicle come the acromion
Ligaments that affix the clavicle to the scapula by it is registered to the coracoid process
Acromion. The roof (highest point) the the shoulder the is formed by a component of the scapula.
Tendons. The tough cords of organization that connect muscles to bones. The rotator cuff tendons space a group of tendons that connect the deepest class of muscles to the humerus.
Muscles. These aid support and rotate the shoulder in countless directions.
Bursa. A closed space between 2 relocating surfaces that has actually a small amount that lubricating fluid inside; located in between the rotator cuff muscle layer and the external layer of large, bulky muscles.
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written of tendons, the rotator cuff and associated muscles hold the ball tightly within the glenohumeral share at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus).