Contrast M1 money supply and also M2 money supplyClassify monies together M1 money it is provided or M2 money supply

Cash in your pocket definitely serves together money. Yet what around checks or credit transaction cards? are they money, too? quite than trying to state a single way of measure up money, economists offer more comprehensive definitions that money based upon liquidity. Liquidity refers to how quickly a financial asset have the right to be offered to buy a an excellent or service. For example, cash is an extremely liquid. Her $10 bill can be conveniently used come buy a hamburger at lunchtime. However, $10 that you have in your savings account is no so basic to use. You must go come the bank or ATM device and withdraw that cash come buy your lunch. Thus, $10 in her savings account isless liquid.

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The Federal to make reservation Bank, i beg your pardon is the central bank of the unified States, is a financial institution regulator and also is responsible for monetary policy and defines money follow to that is liquidity. There room two interpretations of money: M1 and also M2 money supply. M1 money supply consists of those monies the are an extremely liquid such together cash, checkable (demand) deposits, and traveler’s checks M2 money supply is much less liquid in nature and includes M1 plus savings and also time deposits, certificate of deposits, and money sector funds.

M1 money supply includes coins and also currency in circulation—the coins and bills the circulate in an economic situation that are not held by the U.S. Treasury, in ~ the commonwealth Reserve Bank, or in bank vaults. Carefully related to currency are can be harvested deposits, likewise known together demand deposits. These room the quantities held in checking accounts. They space called demand deposits or can be harvested deposits due to the fact that the banking school must offer the deposit holder his money “on demand” when a inspect is written or a debit card is used. These items together—currency, and checking account in banks—make increase the definition of money known as M1, i m sorry is measured everyday by the commonwealth Reserve System. Traveler’s checks space a also included in M1, yet have lessened in use over the current past.

A broader definition the money, M2 has everything in M1 but likewise adds other species of deposits. Because that example, M2 consists of savings deposits in banks, i beg your pardon are financial institution accounts top top which girlfriend cannot compose a inspect directly, yet from which you can quickly withdraw the money at an automatic teller device or bank. Countless banks and also other gaue won institutions also offer a possibility to invest in money market funds, whereby the shop of numerous individual investors room pooled together and also invested in a safe way, such together short-term government bonds. One more ingredient that M2 space the fairly small (that is, much less than about $100,000) certificates that deposit (CDs) or time deposits, which are accounts that the depositor has committed come leaving in the bank for a certain duration of time, varying from a couple of months come a few years, in exchange for a higher interest rate. In short, all these species of M2 are money the you have the right to withdraw and spend, yet which call for a greater initiative to do so than the item in M1 figure 1 should assist in visualizing the relationship in between M1 and also M2. Keep in mind that M1 is had in the M2 calculation.

Figure 1. The Relationship between M1 and M2 Money. M1 and also M2 money have actually several definitions, ranging from small to broad. M1 = coins and also currency in circulation + checkable (demand) deposit + traveler’s checks. M2 = M1 + savings deposits + money sector funds + certificates of deposit + various other time deposits.

The commonwealth Reserve system is responsible because that tracking the amounts of M1 and also M2 and prepares a weekly release of information around the money supply. To provide an idea the what these amounts sound like, follow to the federal Reserve Bank’s measure of the U.S. Money stock, in ~ the finish of February 2015, M1 in the United states was $3 trillion, if M2 to be $11.8 trillion. A malfunction of the section of each kind of money that comprised M1 and M2 in February 2015, as listed by the federal Reserve Bank, is listed in Table 1.

Components that M1 in the U.S. (February 2015, Seasonally Adjusted)$ billions
Traveler’s checks$2.9
Demand deposits and also other check accounts$1,713.5
Total M1$2,988.2 (or $3 trillion)
Components that M2 in the U.S. (February 2015, Seasonally Adjusted)$ billions
M1 money supply$2,988.2
Savings accounts$7,712.1
Time deposits$509.2
Individual money market mutual fund balances$610.8
Total M2$11,820.3 (or $11.8 trillion)
Table 1. M1 and also M2 commonwealth Reserve statistical Release, Money Stock measures (Source: federal Reserve statistics Release,

The lines separating M1 and M2 can come to be a small blurry. Sometimes elements of M1 space not treated alike; for example, part businesses will certainly not accept an individual checks for big amounts, however will accept traveler’s check or cash. Alters in banking techniques and an innovation have made the savings accounts in M2 an ext similar come the check accounts in M1. Because that example, part savings account will permit depositors to write checks, use automatic novelist machines, and also pay bills end the Internet, which has made it simpler to access savings accounts. Similar to many other economic terms and also statistics, the important point is to understand the strengths and also limitations that the various meanings of money, no to think that such definitions are as clear-cut to economists as, say, the definition of nitrogen is come chemists.

Where does “plastic money” like debit cards, credit transaction cards, and also smart money fit right into this picture? A debit card, like a check, is one instruction come the user’s financial institution to transfer money directly and immediately indigenous your bank account come the seller. That is crucial to keep in mind that in our definition of money, that is checkable deposits that space money, not the record check or the debit card. Back you can make a acquisition with a credit card, that is not considered money yet rather a short term loan from the credit transaction card company to you. When you do a purchase with a credit transaction card, the credit transaction card company immediately transfers money indigenous its checking account come the seller, and also at the finish of the month, the credit transaction card agency sends friend a bill for what you have actually charged the month. Till you salary the credit transaction card bill, you have effectively obtained money indigenous the credit card company. Through a smart card, you can store a certain value the money ~ above the card and also then usage the map to make purchases. Part “smart cards” supplied for particular purposes, like long-distance phone calls or making purchases at a campus bookstore and also cafeteria, room not really all the smart, since they deserve to only be offered for details purchases or in details places.

In short, credit cards, debit cards, and also smart cards are various ways to move money as soon as a purchase is made. However having more credit cards or debit cards does not change the amount of money in the economy, any much more than having much more checks printed increases the amount of money in your checking account.

One an essential message basic this conversation of M1 and M2 is that money in a modern economy is not just paper bills and also coins; instead, money is closely linked to bank accounts. Indeed, the macroeconomic policies concerning money are largely conducted through the banking system. The next section describes how banks role and exactly how a nation’s bank system has actually the power to produce money.

Read a brief short article on the current monetary challenges in Sweden.


Key Concepts and Summary

Money is measured with several definitions: M1 has currency and also money in check accounts (demand deposits). Traveler’s checks are also a ingredient of M1, but are decreasing in use. M2 includes every one of M1, plus savings deposits, time deposits favor certificates the deposit, and also money industry funds.

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Self-Check Questions

If you space out shopping because that clothes and books, what is easiest and most practically for you come spend: M1 or M2? describe your answer.For the complying with list the items, indicate if they are in M1, M2, or neither:Your $5,000 heat of credit transaction on your bank of America card$50 dollars’ precious of traveler’s checks you have not provided yet$1 in quarters in your pocket$1200 in her checking account$2000 you have actually in a money industry account

Review Questions

What contents of money space counted as part of M1?What materials of money room counted in M2?

Critical reasoning Questions

Explain why girlfriend think the commonwealth Reserve financial institution tracks M1 and M2.The full amount the U.S. Money in circulation split by the U.S. Population comes the end to around $3,500 per person. That is more than most of united state carry. Whereby is all the cash?If you take it $100 out of her piggy bank and also deposit it in her checking account, exactly how did M1 change? go M2 change?

Federal Reserve statistical Release. November 23, 2013. Http://


coins and also currency in circulationthe coins and also bills that circulate in an economic situation that space not hosted by the U.S Treasury, in ~ the commonwealth Reserve Bank, or in financial institution vaultscredit cardimmediately move money native the credit card company’s checking account to the seller, and at the end of the month the user owes the money come the credit card company; a credit transaction card is a short-term loandebit cardlike a check, is one instruction to the user’s financial institution to carry money directly and immediately native your financial institution account come the sellerdemand depositcheckable deposit in banks that is available by do a cash withdrawal or writing a checkM1 money supplya narrow definition of the money supply that contains currency and also checking account in banks, and also to a lesser degree, traveler’s checks.M2 money supplya meaning of the money it is provided that contains everything in M1, but likewise adds savings deposits, money industry funds, and certificates of depositmoney sector fundthe deposits of many investors space pooled together and also invested in a safe method like short-term federal government bondssavings depositbank account whereby you cannot withdraw money by writing a check, yet can withdraw the money at a bank—or deserve to transfer it easily to a check accountsmart cardstores a details value that money top top a card and then the card deserve to be used to make purchasestime depositaccount the the depositor has actually committed to leaving in the bank for a certain period of time, in exchange because that a greater rate that interest; additionally called certificate that deposit


Answers come Self-Check Questions

The currency and also checks in M1 are easiest to spend. That is harder to invest M2 directly, although if over there is an automatic teller machine in the purchase mall, you deserve to turn M2 from your savings account right into an M1 of currency quite quickly. If her answer is about “credit cards,” climate you room really talking around spending M1—although the is M1 indigenous the account that the credit card company, i m sorry you will repay later when you credit transaction card bill comes due.Neither in M1 or M2That is component of M1, and also because M2 has M1 that is also component of M2Currency the end in the general public hands is part of M1 and M2Checking deposits are in M1 and also M2Money industry accounts space in M2