The causes of the main Peloponnesian War must be traced at least to the early on 430s—the good Gap period—although if Thucydides was best in his basic explanation for the war, specific Spartan are afraid of Athenian expansion, the breakthrough of the entire 5th century and indeed component of the sixth were relevant.

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In the beforehand 430s Pericles led an expedition to the black color Sea, and about the very same time Athens make an alliance through a ar close to locations of classic Corinthian influence, Acarnania. (On an additional view this belonging in the 450s.) In 437 the Athenians fulfilled an old ambition by establishing a nest at Amphipolis, no doubt ~ above a huge scale, though numbers for settlers perform not exist. This was disconcertingly near to an additional outpost that Corinthian influence at Potidaea in the Chalcidice, and there is a opportunity that Athens subjected Potidaea itself to financial press by the mid-430s. The city to be an anomaly in gift both tributary to Athens and simultaneously subject to straight rule by magistrates sent out each year by Corinth; it clearly was a sensitive spot in global relations. Hence to the west (Acarnania and other places) and also northeast (Amphipolis, Potidaea) Corinth was being indirect pressured through Athens, and this push was additionally felt in Corinth’s own backyard, in ~ Megara.

Athens passed a series of steps (the “Megarian decrees”) imposing an financial embargo on Megara for violations of spiritual land. The spiritual aspect of the violation was reflected in the exclude, imposed: choose murderers, the Megarians were banned from the Athenian marketplace and also the harbours in the Athenian empire. But one must not doubt that Athens caused and also intended to cause economic hardship also or the the decrees were the very first move in securing Megara together a army asset, a heat of policy additional pursued in the year 431 to 424. It should additional be listed that the black color Sea, come which, as currently mentioned, Pericles led a flamboyant exploration in the great Gap period, was an area of colonial Megarian settlement; there as well one deserve to legitimately infer an Athenian desire to press Megara, albeit indirectly.

Reactions to all this, in ~ the empire and also outside it, are tough to gauge. Athens’ savage palliation of Samos, a member of the Delian League, in 440–439, did not stop Mytilene and most of Lesbos from appeal at some time in the prewar duration to Sparta for encourage in a revolt they were meditating. No encouragement was given: Sparta to be standing by the Thirty Years’ Peace and should be offered (a little) credit transaction for law so.

For the period from 433 come 411 a vastly more-detailed narrative is possible than theretofore, yet the reader must be warned the this freak of scale is as result of one man, Thucydides, who implemented his see of events on posterity. That would, however, be artificial to compose as if the details for this unique duration were no much better than that available for any other.

The key precipitating reasons of the war, thought of together a war between Athens and Sparta, actually came to relations in between Sparta’s allies (rather 보다 Sparta itself) and other smaller claims with Athenian connections. The two “causes” the occupy the relevant parts of Thucydides’ first, introductory publication concern Corcyra and Potidaea. (Thucydides does not let his readers entirely lose sight of two other causes much disputed at the time—the Megarian decrees and the complaints of Aegina about its ns of autonomy. One 4th-century Athenian orator actually dropped a casual comment to the impact that “we checked out war in 431 about Aegina.”) Corcyra (present-day Corfu), which had actually quarreled through Corinth end the Corcyran nest of Epidamnus ~ above the shore of Illyria (a nest in i m sorry Corinth also had an interest), appealed come Athens.

Taking really seriously the western dimension to its international policy (it was about then that the partnerships with Rhegium and also Leontini were renewed), Athens vote at first for a purely protective alliance and after a debate, totally recorded through Thucydides, sent out a tiny peace-keeping pressure of 10 ships. The force, however, was trebled, as a nervous afterthought; no political background is provided for the move, which, moreover, emerges just subsequently and in passing throughout the rigid of events worrying Corcyra itself. (This is a little illustration of the important point that Thucydides’ presentation over influenced contemporary views ~ above the general problem of Athenian belligerence, as on so countless other issues. A different narrative, by emphasizing the escalation the the Athenian commitment and making that the subject of one more full debate, can have left a different impression. It is, however, tough to be sure if Thucydides’ postponement that the crucial point was prompted by outright political bias in favour of Athens or if the was just a manifestation that a “Homeric” propensity to feeding in info only in ~ the allude where the becomes many relevant). In fact, Corinthian and also Athenian pearls had currently come come blows prior to the reinforcements arrived.

Then at Potidaea, a Corinthian colony, the Athenians demanded the the Corinthian magistrates be sent out home. Potidaea revolted, and an unofficially Corinthian force went the end to help. Potidaea to be laid under siege through Athens. No one of this however amounted come war v the Peloponnesian league as a whole, but the temperature was as high together it can be, brief of that. A congress of Spartan allies to be convoked to talk about grievances against Athens, and also the decision to be taken because that war.

The various other Spartan ally seeking come involve Sparta in a personal feud through an adversary was Thebes, whose assault on that neighbour Plataea (an Athenian ally) in time of peace was retrospectively known by Sparta as an plot of battle guilt. The Spartans should not have condoned it, nor have to they have invaded Attica (despite the reality that the Athenians had actually placed a garrison in Plataea) so lengthy as the Athenians were providing arbitration, as it appears they were.

The early phase, 431–425


Athenian battle strategy and the initial command of the war are presented by Thucydides an extremely much in personal terms: the emphasis is on what Pericles, the dominant figure the this time, did or wanted. The method, favor the Homeric emphasis on heroes, is come some extent literary spotlighting, because that at no time to be Pericles immune indigenous criticism. In the 440s he had actually to attend to a significant rival, Thucydides, boy of Melesias (not the historian), who was ostracized in 443. Even after that, in the poorly documented 430s (before Aristophanes and Thucydides carry out information about individual numbers of second- or third-rate significance), there room suggestions the tension, such as a partial ban on comedy (with that potential because that exposure) and indications in the sources that Cleon was really no a successor of Pericles in ~ all but a highly an essential contemporary. The reasons for Pericles’ dominion remain a secret, and that in itself makes it necessary to enable for a huge element that “charismatic” leadership.

In the army sphere Thucydides is surely not correct to present Pericles together a one-man band. He states of Pericles that at an early stage in the war “the Athenians reproached him for no leading lock out as their basic should.” If this sentence had survived in isolation, one would certainly hardly have guessed the Pericles was one of the college of 10, topic to control and also threat that deposition by the Assembly (Pericles was undoubtedly deposed temporarily toward the finish of his life). Top top the whole, however, Thucydides minimizes the degree to i m sorry Athenian generals delighted in executive latitude, an especially in wartime; it may be said that the factor for this was his very own exile, applied in 424 together a punishment for failing, as commander in the region, to relax Amphipolis. This impression him deeply—and unduly—with the impotence and vulnerability of generals various other than Pericles.

The reproach of “not leading out the Athenians” provides useful insight into Periclean strategy, revealing it to have actually been greatly reactive. Conversely, the Spartans’ goal was to liberate greek from tyranny, which required them come dismantle the Athenian empire, all the Athenians had to execute was to stop such demolition. In a means that suited neither side: initiative of the sort demanded native Sparta was in brief supply there (though never entirely absent). Because that the Athenians’ part, the famously energetic and meddlesome populace did not take kindly to the practical consequences of Periclean strategy that forced it come evacuate Attica and move its populace behind the strengthened walls the Athens, to rely on accumulated capital reserves and also on the fleet together an instrument to host the realm firmly down, and also to avoid including to the empire during wartime. By these method the Athenians would ultimately “win through” (the Greek native is nicely ambiguous as between victory and also survival).

Actually the Athenian place was not and also could not be for this reason simple. Because that one, the agricultural evacuation that Attica was no as finish as it to be to it is in after 413 as soon as the Spartans populated Decelea in north Attica. No one did Pericles altogether give up Attica militarily: there were mounties raids to harass the distributed foot soldiers the the enemy and also to store up city morale. Stop the realm down and also holding onto resources were possibly inconsistent intends in see of the an excellent cost of siege war (there to be no artillery before the fourth century to facilitate the taking of strengthened cities by storm). The devastation of Samos had actually been expensive—a four-figure sum in talents—and the siege the Potidaea to be to price 2,000. Athens, even with coined reserves of 6,000 talents at the start of the war, can not afford plenty of Potidaeas. Pericles can be criticize for no foreseeing this, v the evidence of Samos behind him.

Sparta’s role

Sparta come as a liberator. The too called for money and ships, however the Spartans had neither gathered reserves like Athens nor a appropriate fleet. Persia to be a possible source for both, however assistance from Persia can compromise Spartan “liberation theology.” This was particularly true if Sparta set foot in Anatolia, wherein there to be Greeks v as much desire because that liberation (whether native Athens or Persia or both: some areas paid tribute in both directions) as their mainland counterparts. A further difficulty lay in the type of program Sparta itself could be intended to i have loaded if successful. One revealing reason for the fail of the huge colony in ~ Heraclea established in 426, a project with a strongly anti-Ionian and propagandist element, to be the harsh and also positively unjust action of the Spartan governors, who frightened human being away. Was the Spartan stick, or bakteria, too lot in use by violent Spartan police officers with too tiny self-control?

Again a few qualifications are in order. Money might be derived from more-acceptable resources than Persia—from the west Dorians, for instance. And subsidized piracy, of i m sorry one hears a small in the 420s, was an additional solution come the marine problem. Versus harsh governors choose those in ~ Heraclea one has to balance Brasidas, who was as great a fighter in the battle for the hearts and also minds together in the conventional sense.

Sparta’s intrusion of Attica collection the tone of the very first half the the Archidamian battle (431–421), named after the Spartan king Archidamus II, unfair in check out of the wariness the is claimed to have expressed in ~ the outset. Athens relocated its apricot from Attica across to Euboea, whose economic importance was thus raised further still. Together if in acknowledgment that this was a war brought around at the circumstances of Corinth, much at an early stage Athenian naval task was specialized to stripping Corinth of heritage in the northwest—of Sollium, Astacus, and Cephellenia. Yet there was likewise an Athenian raid on Methone in Messenia (the later on Venetian strong point of Modon), foiled by Brasidas; a morale-boosting raid on the Megarid (such raids were repetitive twice a year till 424); and also some successful diplomacy in the north, wherein the Odrysian Thracians were winner over.

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At the end of this very first campaigning year, Pericles ceded an austere yet moving speech honouring the collapse men, i m sorry has become known together the funeral oration the Pericles. This well known oration, however, is mainly the occupational of Thucydides himself; that is a timeless personal tribute to Athenian power and institutional strength however not, as has actually been argued, a key to unlock Athenian civic ideology. The speech, as preserved, is not peculiarly enthusiastic about democracy together such and also has perhaps been over-interpreted in the light of Athens’s later social fame. In particular, the Thucydidean Pericles is usually taken to have actually said that Athens to be an education to Greece, yet in paper definition he says simply that various other Greeks would perform well to benefit from its politics example.