specify radioactivity. Define a radioisotope. Define how radioactivity entails a change in the nucleus of a radioisotope. Explain the qualities of the creates of radiation. Describe and write equations because that the primary species of radiation decay.

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Marie Curie (1867 - 1934) to be a polish scientist who pioneered research into nuclear radiation (Figure $$\PageIndex1$$). She to be awarded the Nobel compensation in physics in 1903 together with her husband Pierre and also Antoine Henri Becquerel for their work-related on radioactivity. She was awarded a second Nobel compensation in 1911, this time in moment-g.comistry, because that her ongoing research on radioactive elements. In this lesson, you will certainly learn about radioactivity, the factors why particular elements and isotopes space radioactive, and the many common varieties of radioactive decay processes. Figure $$\PageIndex1$$: Marie Curie was one of the leading scientists in the ar of radioactivity. She found two radioactive elements and was awarded two Nobel Prizes for she work.

Radioactivity was uncovered quite by accident. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was examining the impact of specific uranium salt on photographic movie plates. He believed that the salts had actually an impact on the film only once they had been exposed come sunlight. The accidentally discovered that uranium salts that had not been exposed to sunlight still had an result on the photographic plates. The Curies, associates that Becquerel in ~ the time, showed that the uranium was emitting a type of beam that connected with the film. Marie Curie referred to as this radioactivity. Radioactivity is the spontaneous break down of one atom"s nucleus by the emission of particles and/or radiation. Radiation is the emission of power through space in the kind of particles and/or waves.

Nuclear reaction are really different indigenous moment-g.comical reactions. In moment-g.comical reactions, atoms become an ext stable by participating in a transport of electron or by sharing electrons with other atoms. In nuclear reactions, that is the cell core of the atom that gains security by experience a readjust of part kind. Some facets have no stable isotopes, which method that any atom that that element is radioactive. Because that some other elements, only details isotopes space radioactive. A radioisotope is an isotope the an element that is unstable and undergoes radioactive decay. The energies that room released in atom reactions are plenty of orders of magnitude better than the energies involved in moment-g.comical reactions. Unequal moment-g.comical reactions, nuclear reactions space not noticeably influenced by transforms in eco-friendly conditions, such together temperature or pressure.

The discovery of radioactivity and its results on the nuclei of facets disproved Dalton"s presumption that atoms space indivisible. A nuclide is a term because that an atom v a specific variety of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Together we will certainly see, once nuclides of one form emit radiation, they are adjusted into different nuclides. Radioactive degeneration is spontaneous and does not compelled an entry of energy to occur. The stability of a certain nuclide relies on the ingredient of that nucleus, including the variety of protons, the variety of neutrons, and also the proton-to-neutron ratio.

### The band of Stability

Carbon-12, with six protons and six neutrons, is a secure nucleus, definition that the does no spontaneously emit radioactivity. Carbon-14, with 6 protons and also eight neutrons, is unstable and also naturally radioactive. Among atoms with reduced atomic numbers, the ideal proportion of neutrons to proton is approximately 1:1. As the atom number increases, the steady neutron-proton ratio progressively increases to about 1.5:1 for the heaviest known elements. For example, lead-206 is a steady nucleus that has 124 neutrons and 82 protons, a proportion of 1.51 come 1.

This observation is displayed in the number below. The band that stability is the range of stable nuclei top top a graph that plots the variety of neutrons in a nuclide against the variety of protons. well-known stable nuclides are displayed with individual blue dots, while the 1:1 and 1.5:1 ratios are shown with a solid red line and a eco-friendly line, respectively. Figure $$\PageIndex2$$: A graph that the variety of neutrons in a nucleus together a role of the number of protons. Each known stable cell nucleus is stood for by a blue dot. The right neutron to proton ratio alters from 1:1 because that light nuclei come 1.5:1 because that the heaviest nuclei.

It must be detailed that just because a cell nucleus is "unstable" (able to experience spontaneous radiation decay) does not mean that it will rapidly decompose. Because that example, uranium-238 is unstable due to the fact that it spontaneously decays end time, however if a sample of uranium-238 is enabled to sit because that 1000 years, only $$0.0000155\%$$ the the sample will have decayed. However, various other unstable nuclei, such together berkelium-243, will be almost completely gone (>$$99.9999\%$$ decayed) in less than a day.

Unstable nuclei spontaneously emit radiation in the kind of particles and also energy. This generally changes the number of protons and/or neutron in the nucleus, bring about a much more stable nuclide. A nuclear reaction is a reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom. One kind of a atom reaction is radioactive decay, a reaction in i m sorry a cell nucleus spontaneously disintegrates right into a contempt lighter nucleus, accompanied by the emission of particles, energy, or both. An example is presented below, in which the cell core of a polonium atom radioactively decays into a command nucleus.

\<\ce^210_84Po \rightarrow \ce^206_82Pb + \ce^4_2He\>

Note that in a balanced nuclear equation, the sum of the atomic numbers (subscripts) and also the sum of the mass number (superscripts) should be same on both political parties of the equation. Remind the notation system for isotopes, which shows both the atomic number and mass number along with the moment-g.comical symbol. Because the variety of protons alters as a an outcome of this nuclear reaction, the identity of the aspect changes. Transmutation is a adjust in the identification of a nucleus together a an outcome of a change in the number of protons. There are number of different species of naturally arising radioactive decay, and we will examine each separately.

### Alpha Decay

An alpha fragment $$\left( \alpha \right)$$ is a helium nucleus through two protons and also two neutrons. Alpha particles are emitted throughout some varieties of radioactive decay. The net charge of an alpha particle is $$2+$$, and its fixed is approximately $$4 \: \textamu$$. The symbol because that an alpha particle in a atom equation is commonly $$\ce^4_2He$$, though sometimes $$\alpha$$ is used. Alpha decay frequently occurs for very heavy nuclei in i beg your pardon the nuclei space unstable early to huge numbers that nucleons. Because that nuclei that undergo alpha decay, their security is boosted by the individually of 2 protons and also two neutrons. For example, uranium-238 decays into thorium-234 by the emission of one alpha bit (see figure below). Figure $$\PageIndex3$$: The rough uranium-238 cell core spontaneously decays right into a thorium-234 cell core by create an alpha particle.

## Beta Decay

Nuclei over the tape of stability room unstable since their neutron to proton proportion is as well high. To decrease the ratio, a ghost in the nucleus is capable of transforming into a proton and an electron. The electron is immediately ejected in ~ a high rate from the nucleus. A beta particle $$\left( \beta \right)$$ is a high-speed electron emitted from the cell nucleus of an atom during some kinds of radioactive decay (see number below). The symbol for a beta fragment in an equation is either $$\beta$$ or $$\ce^0_-1e$$. Carbon-14 experience beta decay, transmutating right into a nitrogen-14 nucleus.

\<\ce^14_6C \rightarrow \ce^14_7N + \ce^0_-1e\>

Note that beta degeneration increases the atomic number by one, yet the fixed number continues to be the same. Figure $$\PageIndex4$$: The beta degeneration of a carbon-14 nuclide involves the conversion of a neutron come a proton and also an electron, with the electron gift emitted native the nucleus.

The table below summarizes the main types of nuclear radiation, including charge, mass, symbol, and also penetrating power. Penetrating power describes the relative capacity of the radiation to pass through usual materials. Radiation with high penetrating power is potentially more dangerous because it deserve to pass with skin and also do cellular damage.

See more: What Is 84 Divided By 12 ? What Is 84 Divided By 12 Using Long Division

Table $$\PageIndex1$$ Summary of varieties of nuclear radiation.TypeSymbolMass numberChargePenetration PowerShielding
Alpha particle $$\ce^4_2He$$ or $$\alpha$$ 4 $$2+$$ Low Paper, skin
Beta particle $$\ce^0_-1e$$ or $$\beta$$ 0 $$1-$$ Moderate Heavy cloth, plastic
Positron $$\ce^0_1e$$ or $$\beta^+$$ 0 $$1+$$ Moderate Heavy cloth, plastic
Gamma ray $$\gamma$$ or $$^0_0\gamma$$ 0 0 High Lead, concrete
Neutron $$\ce^1_0n$$ 1 0 High Water, lead
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the emission of a particle from an unstable nucleus is called