specify ions, cations and also anions suspect the charge of one anion or cationbased top top the place of the element in the routine table

In simple moment-g.comical reactions, the cell nucleus of each atom remains unchanged. Electrons, however, can be included to atoms by transfer form other atoms, lost by deliver to other atoms, or common with other atoms. The transfer and also sharing the electrons among atoms administrate the moment-g.comistry of the elements. During the formation of some compounds, atoms gain or shed electrons, and kind electrically fee particles referred to as ions(Figure (PageIndex1); video clip (PageIndex1))

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Figure (PageIndex1): (a) A sodium atom (Na) has equal number of protons and electrons (11) and is uncharged. (b) A sodium cation (Na+) has actually lost an electron, therefore it has actually one an ext proton (11) 보다 electrons (10), giving it an all at once positive charge, signified by a superscripted add to sign.

You are watching: Is nitrogen a cation or anion

One can use the routine table to predict even if it is an atom will kind an anion or a cation, and you can regularly predict the fee of the resulting ion. Atom of many main-group metals lose enough electrons to leaving them with the same number of electrons as an atom of the coming before noble gas. To illustrate, one atom of one alkali metal (group 1) loses one electron and forms a cation v a 1+ charge; an alkaline earth metal (group 2) loses two electrons and forms a cation v a 2+ charge, and so on. Because that example, a neutral calcium atom, with 20 protons and 20 electrons, readily loses two electrons. This results in a cation through 20 protons, 18 electrons, and a 2+ charge. It has the same number of electrons together atoms that the coming before noble gas, argon, and is symbolized Ca2+. The surname of a metal ion is the same as the name of the steel atom native which it forms, therefore Ca2+ is referred to as a calcium ion.

When atom of nonmetal elements type ions, they normally gain enough electrons to give them the same number of electrons together an atom the the next noble gas in the regular table. Atom of group 17 gain one electron and kind anions with a 1− charge; atoms of team 16 gain two electron and type ions with a 2− charge, and so on. For example, the neutral bromine atom, through 35 protons and 35 electrons, can get one electron to provide it with 36 electrons. This outcomes in one anion through 35 protons, 36 electrons, and a 1− charge. It has actually the same number of electrons together atoms that the following noble gas, krypton, and is symbolized Br−. (A discussion of the theory supporting the favored condition of noble gas electron number reflected in these predictive rules because that ion development is detailed in a later chapter of this text.)

Note the usefulness that the routine table in predicting likely ion formation and charge (Figure (PageIndex2)). Moving from the far left to the ideal on the periodic table, main-group aspects tend to type cations through a charge equal to the group number. The is, team 1 elements type 1+ ions; team 2 elements form 2+ ions, and so on. Relocating from the far right to the left ~ above the routine table, elements often type anions with a an unfavorable charge same to the variety of groups relocated left from the noble gases. Because that example, team 17 elements (one team left of the noble gases) kind 1− ions; group 16 facets (two groups left) form 2− ions, and also so on. This trend deserve to be used as a overview in countless cases, however its predictive worth decreases when relocating toward the facility of the regular table. In fact, transition metals and also some various other metals frequently exhibit change charges that space not predictable through their ar in the table. For example, copper can type ions v a 1+ or 2+ charge, and iron can kind ions with a 2+ or 3+ charge.

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Figure (PageIndex2): Some facets exhibit a consistent pattern the ionic charge when they kind ions.



Example (PageIndex2): development of Ions

Magnesium and nitrogen reaction to kind an ionic compound. Suspect which develops an anion, which creates a cation, and also the charges of each ion. Compose the symbol because that each ion and name them.

Solution

Magnesium’s place in the regular table (group 2) tells us that it is a metal. Metals type positive ions (cations). A magnesium atom must shed two electron to have actually the exact same number electrons as an atom that the ahead noble gas, neon. Thus, a magnesium atom will kind a cation v two under electrons than protons and also a fee of 2+. The symbol because that the ion is Mg2+, and it is referred to as a magnesium ion.

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Nitrogen’s place in the regular table (group 15) reveals that it is a nonmetal. Nonmetals type negative ion (anions). A nitrogen atom must get three electrons to have actually the same variety of electrons as an atom of the following noble gas, neon. Thus, a nitrogen atom will form an anion v three much more electrons than protons and also a fee of 3−. The symbol for the ion is N3−, and also it is called a nitride ion.