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Roselina Angel, Ph.D. Purina Mills, Inc.P.O. Crate 66812 St. Louis, MO 63166ABSTRACTVitamin and also mineral levels were determined in the eggs of ostriches and compared through poultry typical values together an indicator point. Deficiencies or excesses of vitamins and/or minerals in the laying hen, and also thus in the egg, deserve to lead to infertility, bad hatchability and early chick health and wellness problems. Specifics room described. Also, moment-g.comrmation on vitamin and mineral deficiencies is given.INTRODUCTIONKnowledge of the nutrient content in the egg can be a great tool in evaluating nutritional problems in breeder bird diets. Before looking at the nutrient contents in the egg, review of the environment, management and health that the reproducing bird need to be undertaken. If the moment-g.com obtained suggests that the troubles may it is in nutritional, or the there is a possibility that nutrition may be implicated, climate egg nutritional evaluation can it is in a good tool.Extensive research has been excellent in poultry on nutrient content of the egg, and on the affect of dietary nutrient level on egg nutrient levels (Naber, 1979; Robel, 1993; Stadelman and Pratt, 1989; Squires and Naber, 1993). The affect of the nutritional content of the laying hen's diet on the nutritional contents of the egg varies, depending on the nutrient. Because that example, riboflavin and also biotin contents in the egg are markedly affected by dietary alters (Squires and Naber, 1993, Frigg et al., 1984), however choline is no (Stadelman and Pratt, 1989). If diet has crucial effect on egg nutrient content, management, genetics and environment additionally play a role.Limited details is accessible on ostrich egg ingredient (Angel, 1993: Angel, 1994). The data presented in the first portion of the document is expected to serve as a pointer for typical nutrient worths in the egg of hens fed through feeds with recognized nutrient content, and also to hens fed 8 different diets representative the feeds in the united States.MATERIALS and also METHODSOstrich eggs were obtained from farms in Texas, Arkansas, California and also Indiana. Egg were acquired from hens with a well-known feed history. At least 8 different varieties of feeding from different feed providers were fed come the hen sampled. The worths presented in Table 1 represent median values for the number of eggs sampled to date from hen being fed different diets. Sampling has been excellent of eggs from certain hens where the feed was also analyzed (Table 2). This offers some indication of just how well feeding nutrients space being integrated into the egg.Eggs were determined to it is in infertile at 10 come 14 days right into incubation. In ~ this time, the eggs were sent out to a main location and also immediately processed for analysis.
moment-g.comrmation on weight of egg at the time it to be laid, in ~ the start of incubation, and at the moment it was eliminated from the incubator to be recorded. This moment-g.com was offered to correct because that moisture losses after the egg was laid. The eggs were processed as follows: as soon as the eggs to be received, the egg content was removed and frozen (-20 C) until analyzed. Because that analysis, the egg contents was extensively mixed, a sample taken because that dry issue determination and also a huge (200 ml) aliquot was taken and freeze dried. The freeze-dried product was supplied for protein, fat, vitamin and also mineral analyses. Every analyses were lugged out using approved association of official Chemists (1980) procedures.RESULTS and also DISCUSSIONThe results acquired for egg nutrient content from egg laid by hens being fed various diets room presented in Table 1. moment-g.comrmation derived from the literature on chicken worths that have been uncovered to maximize egg production, hatchability, and also livability is consisted of in the table to serve as a guideline.Moisture, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, iodine, and also iron content of the ostrich eggs sampled were similar to values released for chicken egg content. The concern, were the low levels discovered for vitamin E, pantothenic acid, and manganese in ostrich eggs. Selenium was discovered to it is in high in ostrich eggs versus poultry released values. Copper level in ostrich eggs tends to be low and also exhibits high variability. Copper absorption is impacted by the presence of excess levels of other microminerals (iron, molybdenum, zinc) and also macrominerals (calcium).Table 1 Nutrient contents of Ostrich and Chicken egg (egg contents only)
NutrientOstrich (n=79) Mean (std. dev.)Chicken1
Moisture, %75.32 (1.01)74.7
(Dry matter Basis)
Protein, %47.0 (1.2)47.4
Fat, %44.3 (1.8)45.4
Calcium, %.243 (.01).233
Phosphorus, %.795 (.07).810
Vitamin A, IU/g16.29 (8.1)20.5
Vitamin E, IU/kg15.31 (10.5)39.95
Folic Acid, ppm1.51 (.4)1.18
Pantothenic Acid, ppm28.45 (6.955.3
Riboflavin, ppm9.12 (1.6)12.6
Thiamin, ppm5.02 (1.1)3.55
Magnesium, ppm540.0 (55)490.0
Manganese, ppm8.9 (2.9)15.8
Selenium, ppm1.53 (.7).60
Zinc, ppm51.6 (6.5)59.2

Iodine, ppm3.3 (.51)2.8
Iron, ppm110.9 (7.6)90.9
Copper, ppm1.5 (1.1)2.45
1 From: Cotterill et al., 1977, Latshaw and Osman, 1975.
2 values corrected because that moisture loss throughout incubation(ostrich eggs were derived after 14 job of incubation).

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Vitamin E has important functions in reproduction. Vitamin E in the egg contents of the egg sampled was found to it is in low compared to typical values in chickens. Preliminary results from eggs sampled from hens wherein dietary vitamin E contents was well-known (Table 2) present that levels of 189 IU/kg that vitamin E in the diet an outcome in egg level of39.18 IU/kg of egg contents on a dry issue basis. Additional work is essential to identify the level of vitamin E in the diet important to provide greater levels in the egg content. moment-g.comrmation is likewise needed regarding the interaction of vitamin E v the absorb of other fat dissolve vitamins favor vitamins A and also K. The will also be essential to identify whether there space some creates (isomers) that vitamin E that are far better absorbed than others. Ultimately, research is essential that records the relationship amongst dietary vitamin E levels, egg level, and egg production, hatchability, and also livability in ostriches.While act the egg sampling work, what appears to it is in a selenium toxicity trouble (values native eggs obtained from hens being supplemented with high levels of selenium to be not provided to obtain the median values) to be observed. Levels as high together 6.7 ppm were found in the egg contents (dry matter) of eggs from laying hen consuming blended diets v high selenium. Many of the selenium in this diet came from a powdered vitamin E-selenium supplement being sprinkled ~ above a complete pelleted diet. The is important to note that ostrich egg levels are greater than poultry levels, and also that supplementation with selenium is not advised unless especially indicated. Sprinkling additionally on complete diets current several problems. The amount gift sprinkled is unknown, given the potential variability in between manually sprinkled amounts that space not pre-measured. Also, sprinkling a powdered kind of a complement leads to stable of the supplements come the bottom of the feeding trough. This presents a problem, offered that ostriches are known to have a preference for the feed they know. Thus, if they are accustomed to eating pellets, they will tend not come consume the fines. Through a powdered supplement, this would average a low consumption or one uneven usage of the supplement. Overall, as soon as a supplement is used, where the intake of the supplement can vary in between birds and the amount available can likewise vary, it is an overwhelming to identify actual intake levels.Manganese shows up to be low in ostrich eggs. In preliminary studies, dice t worths of 210 ppm caused levels that 11.9 ppm in the egg contents dry matter. High calcium and phosphorus join aggravate the manganese deficiency by impairing manganese absorption. Thus, that is necessary to look at the entirety diet nutrient contents (together with any type of supplements the producer is using) to evaluate deficiencies.When stating mineral nutrition together it relates come ostriches, the is crucial to take into consideration water and also soil mineral levels. A water and also soil analysis that provides macro- and also micromineral level is vital tool when looking at nutrient intake. The is not uncommon for healthy birds to consume several of the substrate they space on, and also during stressful periods, they have the right to consume high quantities of this substrate. The substrate for reproduction birds tends to be dirt (soil), and also in part cases, sand is included to the pen together a
place because that nesting. The soil and also sand have to be analyzed. Cases of copper deficiencies have actually been documented. In this cases, an interfering mineral has actually been uncovered in the soil and forage. High levels of floor molybdenum, stole and/or zinc have been observed associated with the copper deficiency cases. These 3 minerals interfere with the absorption or utilization of copper, and lead to deficiency nevertheless of enough level of copper in the diet.Egg nutrient content for eggs from hens where the nutrient in the diet was analyzed space presented in Table 2. These are preliminary values and also should be supplied with caution. The is crucial to note that these worths were not derived from dose response experiments yet from hen being fed one diet. Nutrient interaction can and also do occur often, and also they will influence the means nutrients are took in and utilized. Also, the hens from which eggs were derived were not all ~ above the same location and thus, water and also soil mineral content have the right to have an influence on mineral levels in the egg.In the review done through Naber (1979) on the result of nutrients on egg composition, he says that some nutrients in the egg are not influenced by diet. The adhering to nutrients in the egg content are minimally changed by changes in the diet: water, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, amino acids, magnesium (Naber, 1979). Various other nutrients in the egg content have actually been discovered (Naber, 1979) come be really responsive to dietary transforms (vitamins A, D, E, K, and also B12, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, linoleic acid, manganese, iodine).Table 2 Nutrient content of Ostrich Egg Content and of Diet
NutrientOstrich (n=21)Diet
Moisture, %75.5 (0.5)11.7 (.9)
(Dry issue Basis)
Calcium, %.238 (.04)2.4 (.17)
Phosphorus, %.793 (.07)1.1 (.08)
Vitamin A, IU/g18.51 (8.1)12.98 (.31)
Vitamin E, IU/kg39.18 (11.4)199 (14.7)
Folic Acid, ppm1.01 (.21)4.4 (.3)
Pantothenic Acid, ppm42.9 (6.9)26.2 (1.8)
Riboflavin, ppm11.3 (1.1)12.1 (0.6)
Manganese, ppm11.9 (2.9)215 (17)
Selenium, ppm1.42 (.7)46 (.02)
Copper, ppm3.1 (.9)25.7 (1.7)
Table 3 summarizes the potential impacts of dietary deficiencies on embryos, reproduction and really young chicks as elucidated in poultry, with restricted moment-g.comrmation included certain to ostriches. These are guidelines to keep in mind once looking at reproductive difficulties (in the males and females), embryonic mortalities, and also at very early chick mortalities. It is important to save in mind the reproductive, hatching and early chick problems can be associated to various other factors. All determinants must be taken into consideration when searching for potential causes, factors such as: incubation and also hatching (temperature, humidity, weight loss, egg turning, sterility the incubation environment, air movement in incubator, and incubation time), egg pick up routine, egg handling and storage before incubation, health of reproductive pair (to prevent vertically transmitted
diseases), in its entirety sanitation of eggs and sanitation in the incubator and also hatcher (and the rooms in i beg your pardon they room located), and also diet.
Table 3 impacts on the Embryo, Egg, Hen and Chick of Deficiencies the Vitamins and Minerals(From Poultry NRC, 1984, 1994, and also Scott et al, 1982)(Signs that have been observed and can be traced ago to a deficiency that the certain vitamin in ostriches are adhered to by *)
Vitamin A-Early mortality
-Failure to construct a circulatory system
-Abnormalities the the kidneys, eyes, and skeleton
-Marked reduction in egg production
-Increased time in between clutches
-Low hatchability
-Increase in malposition embryos
Vitamin D-Low hatchability
-Late embryonic mortality
-Shortened top mandible in embryo
-Increased production of slim shells or shell-less eggs
-Low egg production
-Increased incidence the malposition embryos
Vitamin E-Early embryonic mortality - circulatory fail *
-Late mortality
-hemorrhages and also disturbances in circulatory system
-High mortality of chicks shortly after flower *
-Low hatchability
-Prolonged deficiency in males causes testicular degeneration
Thiamin (B1)-Atrophy the genital organs, more pronounced in the testes 보다 in the ovaries
-High embryonic mortality throughout hatching through no certain signs
-Embryos the hatch will build polyneuritis
Riboflavin (B2)-High mortality through peaks early, middle and also late throughout incubation
-Embryos exhibit dwarfing, altered limb and also mandible development, edema, defect in the down advance (clubbed down)*
-Low hatchability
-Incidence of increase size and also fat contents in liver in the hen

Niacin-Embryos conveniently synthesize sufficient niacin native tryptophan if pyridoxine is adequate
Pyridoxine (B6)-Decrease egg production
-Decrease hatchability
-No particular effects top top embryos
Folic Acid-Late embryonic mortality (after within pipping
-Bending the the tibiotarsus
-Defects the the mandible, deformed beaks *
-Reduced hatchability
-Twisted hocks
Pantothenic Acid-Very late mortality without characteristic signs
-Low hatchability
-Very weak chicken at hatch
-No impact on egg production
-Late embryonic mortality
Manganese-Shortened bones
-Skull deformities, parrot beak *
-Low egg production
-Reduced egg shell strength
-Increased incidence of slim shelled and shell less eggs*
Zinc-Embryos exhibit skeletal deformities including the head, limbs and also vertebrae faulty spine and also limb development, caudal component of stems absent, tiny eyes, limbs missing
-Chicks the hatch room weak, have an obstacle standing, have actually an sped up respiratory rate and also show labored breathing
-Decreased egg production
Iodine-Enlarged thyroid gland
-Incomplete closure that navel *
-Prolonged incubation time
-Decreased hatchability
-Decrease egg production
Selenium Deficiency-Low egg production
-Very short hatchability

Selenium Excess-Reduced egg production*
-Reduced hatchability*
-Embryonic abnormalities*
REFERENCESAssociation of main Analytical Chemists. Official approaches of evaluation of the association of official Analytical Chemists. 13th ed. Combination of official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C.Angel R. Research study update: Age alters in digestibility of nutrients in ostriches and also nutrient profiles of ostrich and emu eggs as indications of nutritional standing of the hen and chick. Proc. Assoc. Avian Vet. Aug 31 to Sep 4, pp 275-281, Nashville, TN, 1993.Angel R. Diet effect on egg nutrient in a high creating ostrich. Proc. Assoc. Avian Vet. Sep 28-30, pp. 121-126, Reno, NV, 1994.Cotterill OJ, Marion WN, Naber EC: A nutrient re-evaluation of shell eggs. Poultry Sci 56:1927-1934, 1977.Frigg M, Broz J, Streiff F. Studies on biotin deposition in hens' eggs. Proc XVII World's Poultry Congress, Aug 8-12, Helsinki, Finland, 1984.Latshaw JD, Osman M: circulation of selenium in egg white and also yolk after ~ feeding natural and synthetic selenium compounds. Poultry Sci 54:1244-1252, 1975.Naber EC. The result of nutrition ~ above the ingredient of the egg. Poultry Sci 58:518-528, 1979.National study Council, Nutritional needs of domestic animals. Nutrient needs of poultry. 8 hours revised edition. National Academy the Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1984.Robel EJ. Evaluation of egg injection that folic acid and also effect the supplemental folic mountain on hatchability and also poultry weight. Poultry Sci. 72:546-553, 1993.Scott ML, Nesheim MC, Young RJ: Nutrition that the chicken. Third Edition. Cornell University, Ithaca, brand-new York, 1982.Squires MW, Naber EC. Vitamin file of eggs as indications of nutritional condition in the laying hen: Riboflavin study. Poultry Sci. 72:483-494, 1993.Stadelman WJ, Pratt DE. Components influencing the ingredient of the hen's egg. World's Poultry Sci. 45:247-266, 1989.