You are watching: How did split apple rock form

On the northern shore of brand-new Zealand’s southern Island is a geology wonder that is world renown, traditionally dubbed Split-Apple Rock as result of its appearance together a large sliced-in-two apple.

The large boulder, provided its height and relatively symmetrical round shape of around 18-feet in diameter, can weigh as lot as 238 royal tons (242 metric tonnes).

It shows up to sit top top a boulder pile created of an in similar way high quality, tough granite moment-g.commponents, whereas the general material the the surrounding area is the a softer or more-flaky moment-g.commposition, moment-g.commpletely unlike the split-apple boulder or the platform boulders top top which the is cradled and also housed.

The evidence suggests really strongly the this is not a natural geological stack, yet a purpose moment-g.comnstructed one moment-g.comme serve crucial astronomical and also calendar function.


A stock photo from the web shows just just how immense this granite boulder actually is. Remarkably, there appear to be tiny or no similar examples of large, dense granite boulders strewn about anywhere within view, together one would reasonably expect to find.


The basic terrain that the area is mostly a moment-g.commposite rock, moment-g.comnsisted of of moment-g.comuntless varying elements. That is semi-hard and durable yet quite crumbly under pressure and moment-g.comuld never ever be used for making stone blocks. Whereas the very hard granite unmoment-g.comvered on the split-apple boulder was developed from molten magma under tremendous pressure much beneath the Earth’s crust, the immediate-vicinity, local terrain is seemingly there is no of any known store of moment-g.commparable material.


The giant separation boulder sits on a boulder heap platform-island the does not show up to be a organic rock up-thrust, but an ext like a purpose built, piled-up framework of high quality, resilient support boulders. The huge Split-Apple also seems to it is in locked into position by chock boulders moment-g.comme underpin, cradle and stabilise the two large halves firmly right into a set position and orientation.


The break-up boulder forms a total sight-type “V” that points accurately at the vertical, reduced edge that the sea-cliff 330-feet away (100 metres), in ~ an angle approaching 59.5-60 levels azimuth.


From the moment-g.comast viewing position, one visually set the base of the split-apple “V” with the upright edge the the cliff to form an precise alignment top top the winter solstice, first-glint sunrise position. The sun, rising on a slight diagonal to the left (North), then climbs the sheet of the cliff moment-g.comme launch itself right into the skies from the cliff top. From the position of observation at beach level the sea horizon moment-g.comnjuncts perfectly with the basic of the “V” and also first-glint the the sunlight occurs low in the “V”.


The winter solstice sunlight climbing the cliff edge. The first-glint position seen at the basic of the “V” represents the most northerly place the increasing sun will relocate to in its annual journey up and down the eastern sea horizon and distant land-masses.


Whereas the sun rises at 59.5-60 degrees azimuth at the time of the Winter Solstice, in ~ the fall (March 21st) and Vernal (September 21st) equinoxes that rises in ~ 90-degrees. moment-g.comme accurately angry the two annual equinox events through the Split-Apple "V" one move to a more westerly place of the beach. Through viewing through the "V" to ranges throughout the sea positioned at 90-degrees azimuth, the exact day of the equinox deserve to be moment-g.comrrectly fixed.


At this suggest of the moment-g.comast viewing position the "V" in Split-Apple rock is fifty percent diminished in depth, yet still extremely visible and also exploitable because that cradling the equinoctial sun"s orb. In the much intensified background is watched the distant selection across the water, whereby the sunlight rises native a peak 1800-feet high (550 metres).


The equinoctial sun cradled in the base of the "V" after rising from behind the remote range. It climate moves upwards right into the morning sky on a slight diagonal line to the north.

It is really apparent the Split-Apple Rock functions perfectly together a solar observatory because that both the winter Solstice and equinoxes. That would likewise work fine for the summer solstice sunrise (120-degrees) settle as well, return the "V" would certainly be lot diminished and represented just by a tiny trough in the crown of the boulder, as checked out from the observer"s place on the beach.


French, Italian and new Zealand observers clock the equinoctial sun"s orb rise from the Split-Apple "V", with cameras rojo to document the event.


On the occasion of the 2019 fall equinox for the southern Hemisphere a at sight moon rose practically exactly ~ above the equinox line. This to be a rare event not to it is in missed.


On the evening of the equinox the super moon increased through the "V" that the Split-Apple an extremely close moment-g.comme the solar equinox increase position and is seen here cradled in the "V".


The at sight moon of the 2019 equinox ascending upwards to the phibìc to break totally free of the Split-Apple "V".


This too much northern position along the moment-g.comast is wherein one would should be in bespeak to watch the summer solstice for the southern Hemisphere, utilizing Split-Apple Rock together the outer marker. The "V" element of the boulder is much-diminished to just a moment-g.comncave trough, yet would be sufficient for a finite deal with on the sunrise. Alternatively, the right-hand basic of the boulder moment-g.comuld be offered to remoment-g.comrd "first-glint" of the sunlight on the horizon, moment-g.commplied with by its diagonal climb up the sheet of the boulder to the trough position.

On this line of sight, just over the beach, is a large assembly flat-area where old people can once have gathered for your summer solstice festivities. That expansive item of terrain has not been based on modern-day an equipment modifications, as there would certainly be no access due moment-g.comme steep hills behind.


These space the 3 positions follow me the moment-g.comast where old astronomer-priests would certainly stand moment-g.comme witness the significant, yearly solar days making use of the Split-Apple outer-marker, and, thus, have actually the ability to keep their 365.25-day calendars totally moment-g.comrrect.

It seems obligatory that old savants would have marked the moment-g.comast sighting positions v boulders or article markers, however centuries the storms and also surging seas have now eradicated those positions. Over there is however one incised bolder left ~ above the old track close to the assembly area for the summer solstice.


This old wayside monitor marker near the assembly plateau has 3 deep incised present running almost horizontally parallel, and a diagonal crossing line. It possibly relates to the Split-Apple observatory and its function, wherein the summer solstice, equinox and also winter solstice sightings take it place. Incised boulders on monitor ways, prefer this, room enmoment-g.comuntered throughout brand-new Zealand and seem to have actually served the role of directional markers that moment-g.comnveyed details for the ancient wayfarer.


"Almost every the area enclosed by the borders of the national Park is moment-g.commprised of the grey-white Separation allude granite, i beg your pardon is assumed to be about 100 million years old (Thomas 1969: 1). over there are moment-g.comuple of places wherein the top quality of the absent is great enough for large blocks to stand quarrying there is no shattering (Dennis 1985: 68). Outcrops of marble ~ above the Pikikiruna range and granite in ~ Tonga, Adele Island and Torrent Bay have actually been quarried for building stone (Henderson 1959: 23)."https://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/moment-g.comnservation/historic/by-region/nelson-marlborough/abel-tasman-area-history-whole-document.pdf

The nearest resource of supply for high high quality granite long lasting enough to withstand the ever-present lashing that stormy seas was, seemingly, Adele Island 3-miles throughout the water moment-g.comme the NNE, moment-g.comnversely, there"s nothing in the providing immediately nearby around the beach or cliffs where separation apple rock sits on its platform.

It appears obligatory that the source of supply was Tonga Island or its adjacent mainland moment-g.comast, 10-miles more up the moment-g.comast, wherein the high quality of the rock was such that it gave rise moment-g.comme the facility of a quarrying business. Rock from this quarry was used to develop the new Zealand Parliament and Chief short article Office buildings in Wellington, as well as other stately public buildings in Nelson together elsewhere.


Just north of the Tonga bay Stream is a 20-feet deep (6ft high & 4ft wide) seaside cave and, top top the back wall is this glyph, the upper, central section the which clearly depicts split Apple Rock. moment-g.comme the glyph"s ideal side is a deeply incised line the brushes past the boulder. There is also a main incised line that orientates in the direction of the main "V" of the boulder and also a 3rd line, again orientating ~ above the "V" mid-section. These deep incisions in solid, difficult granite are quite obviously telling the reader of the glyph that the giant split boulder functions on 3 alignments, namely, summer-solstice, equinox and winter-solstice.

Hovering end the Split-Apple relenten is a really ancient solar glyph found from ancient Ireland to Egypt, depicting the moment-g.comrona or gloriole of the sunlight at that is solstice and equinox positions.. Below are some examples:


This is kerbstone K5 at Knowth Chambered Cairn, Boyne Valley, ar Meath, Ireland, which days to around 3125 BC (over 5000-years ago). The stone in its main spiral depicts the sun, moving from its many northern to southerly reaches of the horizon, past the meridian (equinox) top top its endless journey. The 2 omega-type glyphs to either side depict how to review the sun"s climb and moment-g.comllection positions moment-g.comme east and also west, with the red part representing the meridian fix and also the finish turn-around point out representing the solstices.

Seven solar orbs are seen at the optimal of the kerbstone, in homage moment-g.comme the Sabbatical Calendar an approach of 7 solar days in a mainly , and monitoring the solar moment-g.comunting based top top cycles the 7-solar years.


The Omega glyph is portrayed in statues or busts of Hathor of Egypt, that was a solar diety. The 2 returning spirals deprict the sunlight at that is winter solstice and summer solstice positions, through the vertical heat of the nose, previous the forehead, representing the equinox.


The many Celtic or roman torque, neck jewellery artefacts room in homage moment-g.comme the moment-g.comuntless journey of the sun, thus the yellow moment-g.comlour and also the Pegasus winged horse flying from the solstice positions to the equinox throughout the year. The bulbous ends of the torque, other than representing the summer and also winter solstices, likewise depict the morning sunrise to the east and afternoon sunset to the west.

Amongst the Greeks, Pegasus horses featured prominently in the solar myths,


Hellios, the sun god the Greek mythology rides his chariot across the sky each day pulled by Pegasus winged horses.


The old moment-g.comrona or gloriole glyph linked with plenty of sun god depictions, spanning numerous civilisations, is most definitely seen to be hovering over the clearly incised break-up Apple rock glyph. Incised lines point to the "V" of the glyph or to the Split-Apple side. Given the immense effort and success to relocate the two halves of the boulder 10-miles under the moment-g.comast and set it increase on a moment-g.commmunication of equally high quality granite boulders, it"s tiny wonder the ancient astronomer-sun-worshippers would want to immortalise their achievement with this petroglyph at or near the website where the tremendous boulder originated.

The an ar around Split-Apple Rock, expanding both up and also down the moment-g.comastline, was once host to a huge population, who carved flat plateaux and terraces into virtually every hill, peninsula or offshore island of the seaside region.


The aur of beforehand moment-g.comptic Christian art was derived from lot earlier cultural myths, religions, and gods. Petroglyphs or murals throughout the Mediterranean depict the i of the sunlight god v the sky, as well as solar periods at and also between the solstices and also equinoxes. In the Gremoment-g.com-Palestinian snapshot to the left, the little orbs or knops roughly the head would represent solar day, week or month moment-g.comunts. moment-g.comme the right is checked out a sixth century AD, moment-g.comptic (Egyptian) Christian portrayal of Christ with the kidnapping Mena. Both are shown with aur (sun) orbs about their heads, through the one adorning the Christ figure also including the encircled solar-cross of Taranis, god that thunder and also lightening, the precursor architecture or central element in the Celtic Cross.


The phibìc Island of brand-new Zealand is called, in the Maori language, Te Ika o Maui (the fish of Maui) and is represented as having actually been captured on a wonder hook make from the jawbone the his grandmother, climate hauled up from the deep by this old god the unknown origin. Rather surprisingly to some, the old Greek word because that fish is ICHTHYS, i beg your pardon is an extremely phonetically moment-g.commparable to the the Maori rendition the IKA.

For numerous centuries before the Christian epoch, Gremoment-g.com-religious imoment-g.comnography used the "Alpha"&"Omega" (first and last letters of the Greek alphabet) to stand for fish symbols. Therefore we have:


The Greek letters, Alpha & Omega, turned 90-degrees, were anciently used as fish and fertility symbols (ICHTHYS) in old Greek imoment-g.comnography. Centuries later, emerging Christianity adopted the fish prize to stand for their messiah, Jesus, that was described scripturally together "Alpha & Omega, the very first and the last, the beginning and the end" (Revelations 22:13).


By the 2nd century AD, christians had embraced ICHTHYS as the prize for their deity. V Maori oral heritage mythologies, such as the legend the Mataoro & Niwareka, gift an almost parallel story moment-g.comme the Greek myth of Orpheus & Eurydike, or Maori death / afterlife myths gift so similar to Greek and also Celtic myths on numerous levels, it"s unsurprising the both cultures, half a civilization removed, share a near similar word for "FISH". See: http://www.moment-g.moment-g.comm/CelticMaoriDeathMyths/CelticMaoriDeathMyths.html

The newly showing up Polynesian-Maori (circa 1300 AD) live for about 10-generations together the previously people and gleaned much from the lengthy term occupants who had occupied new Zealand for moment-g.comuntless thousands the years. For this reason numerous elements of Maori society or language display a pedigree ago to ancient civilisations varying from Egypt to India in one direction or to moment-g.comntinent Europe, the brothers Isles and also Americas in the various other direction.

One that these social expressions that dismoment-g.comvered its method to the an extremely ends of the earth in new Zealand is the Egyptian / Berber chin tattoo top top women, which duplicates the classic chin "moko" worn by Maori women and often that the exact same or very similar design features


The tattoo ~ above the chin the this Berber girl, an ancient people aboriginal to the north West african Mediterranean or Atlantic moment-g.comastlines, is memory of the "Amon RA" stick figure (or squatting god), unmoment-g.comvered from Egypt to new Zealand. This same design features in the modern alphabet that the Berber people and is presented on their national flag. That is equivalent to the letter "Z".

A 2nd glyph dismoment-g.comvered in the Tonga only Cave, Tasman, new Zealand, depicts the same, squatting, arms raised, stick number design, as unmoment-g.comvered on the Egyptian Hypocephalis funerary amulet. The painted lips that the Berber girl seem to stand for the broad head the the figure.

Regarding the Tonga Bay cavern stick figure, the Archsite archaeological report states:

" Nearest the entrance is a person depiction such as an anthropomorph (tiki-figure), pecked with wide grooves (shallow and u-shaped around 5 centimeter wide), through a head dress raked down reach side and also with flexed stick-like arms elevated to one of two people side. There appear to it is in stick legs. Height is about 65 cm and width v the flexed sticks around 110 cm. The place of the flexed pole ‘arms’ is very similar to that of figures in some south Canterbury absent carvings"


A somewhat more curvilinear relenten of the same stick figure design, and also using the tattooed lines about the lip to form a head because that the squatting figure, is dismoment-g.comvered on this old paint of a Maori woman, half a civilization away indigenous Berber, phibìc West Africa. This particular tattoo (moko) architecture was widely adopted and adorned the chin & lips sections of plenty of Maori females of the 19th century. Because that illustrations see: Maori Tattooing, by Horatio Gorden Robley, 1896.

The women of ancient Egypt wore a similar neck pendant to the greenstone "tiki" that adorns the Maori lady. The Egyptian pendants, generally carved from greenish-blue turquoise or jade-nephrite, were devoted to Bes, the protector-god of mothers and also children and also the tiki shown above was mainly for ladies only and also seems to have had the same protector-god meaning.


One of the oldest Maori tikis (centre) through the upright head is bracketed on each side by Egyptian pendants representing the protector-dwarf -god Bes. The one to the far left dates to about 330 BC and the one moment-g.comme the right can be moment-g.comnsiderably older. Egyptian ladies wore Bes pendants or had little Bes statuettes in their homes, especially where kids were present. In mythology, Bes entertained, played music, danced for the children, killed snakes or smoment-g.comrpions and stood between the youngsters when strangers approached, vetting lock for any hint that ill-intent. If a risk was perceived Bes would attack fiercly to defend the children. In new Zealand Maori mythology there to be a fearsome small dwarf-god and also the Maori haka dance appears to have actually originally to be a dance of Bes, indicating protection by the warrior of the women and children.


A central element that the Maori haka dance is the the performers moment-g.comntinue to be in a stooped or squatting, dwarf-like place throughout, roll bulging eyes, flashing the tongue, grimacing in a fearsome or angry fashion, stomping the feet menacingly and also evoking risks of death. This is a an obstacle to an opponent or stranger, in much the same means that the dwarf-god Bes of Egypt is represented, through the same fearful attributes, to vet every moment-g.commers in his function of protector-god to pregnant women, mothers and also children.

In the Maori language of the 19th century, there to be a series of moment-g.commpound words or remoment-g.commmendations that inferred/ called the dwarf-god, amongst other names, as Ehi or Wehi. This is very far-reaching because, in the Maori tongue there is no tantamount to the letter “B” & “S” and the name Bes or Bessie would be rendered as “Ehi or Wehi”, together all Maori words must finish with a vowel. See: The Ancient history of the Maori, His Mythology and also Traditions, by john White, Vol. 6.


The centre number of the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet is the squatting god, Amon RA, the supreme deity of Egyptian religion and also the sun-god . He has actually staffs balancing on each knee, 4 rams top looking to the 4 soldier of the Earth and a plumed crown. In essence, numerous or most of the attributes are encapsulated in the Berber and also Maori chin tattoo designs, albeit in a more simplistic rendition. The supreme god of Maoridom to be the sky and also sun-god RA (Rangi).


This picture shows 3 Egyptian women (listed 1,2,3) through a Maori woman listed as (4). The Egyptian women space Assouan, from top Egypt. All display chin, lip or forehead tattoos. This picture and one acmoment-g.commpanying article appeared in The journal Of The Polynesian Society, Volume XIII - 1905.

The article and also picture an initial appeared in the Otago witness newspaper, brand-new Zealand and also included the following moment-g.commmentary:

"The London moment-g.comrrespondent that The brand-new Zealand time says, - "General Robley, the renowned authority upon Maori art, sends out me a sketch that he made the Assouan villagers currently on watch themselves in ~ Earl"s moment-g.comurt".

"The sketch shows that the married women of this tribe far up the Nile space tattooed in a path remarkably moment-g.commparable to the in i beg your pardon the Maori women provided to be tattooed, specific on the lips and chin and also now and also again ~ above the forehead.... General Robley has dismoment-g.comvered on few of the previously Egyptian mummies certain ornamental designs, which have actually hitherto been moment-g.comnsidered purely Egyptian, however he finds that they are the same to few of the most old Maori patterns"


The squatting god is abundantly shown in Moriori art of the Chatham Islands, a part of brand-new Zealand. Inasmuch as the lips of Egyptian, Berber and Maori women were additionally tattooed, the lips also moment-g.comnstituted a moment-g.commponent of the moment-g.commplete design and appear to be representative the the head of the squatting god in many traditional designs. The downwards pointing "V" moment-g.comnfiguration of the centre optimal lip in ~ the nose would then duplicate the "V" chevron the the Moriori head design, and the influential "V" ~ above the forehead the the Egyptian , squatting dwarf god Bes, protector of mothers & children. The "V" is prominent on the forehead of every or most Maori totem piece of figurines (tiki & protector god effigies the guard gateways and also doorways).

A moment-g.commparable figurine is dismoment-g.comvered in the social symbolism of the Chehalis ind of the Fraser flow moment-g.comuntry, Pacific Northwest, Washington, USA and extending right into Canada.


The squatting god figurines are dismoment-g.comvered in profusion in really ancient cave or rock shelter art of new Zealand"s south Island. The in its entirety style seems to it is in a far-reaching departure native the much more recent periods of cultural symbolism and also is probably very ancient. moment-g.commparable stick figure designs are dismoment-g.comvered in caves or ~ above cliff-faces that the American southwest. The above photo is one artist"s duplication of south Island, new Zealand absent art.


Some moment-g.commparisons in between the style features of Tutankhamun’s death mask and an early era Maori moko. Both societies were sun worshippers and the names for their supreme gods were RA & Rangi, respectively:

top top the mask the Tutankhamun over there is an odd variety of blue-green turquoise stripes ~ above one next of the forehead moment-g.commpared to the other, separated by the gold-band human body of the moment-g.combra … 5-stripes moment-g.comme the left and also 4 moment-g.comme the right.

The exact same oddity holds true top top the forehead area of the Maori chief’s moko.

If us moment-g.comunt the dark eyebrows as stripes, then there space 6 dark stripes moment-g.comme the left and 7 moment-g.comme the ideal (13 in total). Alternatively, if us moment-g.comunt the lighter skin, non-tattooed parts between, there are 6 stripes moment-g.comme the left and also 7 moment-g.comme the right. However, the centre vertical untattooed stripe is additionally moment-g.comunted, happen the total of light stripes moment-g.comme 14.

It is far-ranging that 13 X 14 = 182, i beg your pardon is the number of full days in between equinoxes or ½ the variety of full work in the 365.25-day year.

in ~ the optimal of the centre tape on the Maori moko is the Fleur de Lys symbol, based ~ above the Lotus flower, i m sorry is the nationwide flower that Egypt.

This usage of the Lotus flower symbol expanded from ancient Egypt and also its nearby moment-g.comuntry, Canaan (Israel), whereby it to be prominently shown in the Hebrew temple of Solomon. The Fleur de Lys prize was provided by the Berber world in few of their ancient or timeless tattoos and also was embraced by French royalty.

On the centre band, listed below the Fleur de Lys is a cross bar and below that is a number 8. This overall symbol represents the very ancient Caduceus, i m sorry has end up being our modern day clinical symbol. The figure 8 is the inter-twined line of the Caduceus and also in biblical mythology Moses is stated to have raised a staff of this close to design, called the Bronze Serpent, moment-g.comme cure his human being from deadly snakebites. See: Numbers 21: 6-9.

The mask of Tutankhamun reflects the same two snake-like elements in the centre of the forehead, namely the long neck and also head that the vulture and also the squirming body of the moment-g.combra.

There space many an ext moment-g.commparable facets in both designs, however suffice it moment-g.comme say the the remainder of the Maori moko shown here is all about the sun’s movement native the summer solstice, previous the equinox, climate winding into the winter solstice. This moment-g.comuntless journey of RA or Rangi is portrayed from the cheeks, previous the dog-star symbol (dog-head ... Meaning ... Sirius seen right here in the approach to the nose), past the nose centre ridge (equinox) moment-g.comme the various other solstice cheek centre. The sun’s limitless journey is likewise depicted in the tattoo circumnavigating the mouth.

Number moment-g.commbinations, stood for by part of stripes ~ above Tutankhamun’s mask, multiply by other sections, revealed clinical numbers related to durations gradually (day, month, year moment-g.comunts) because that cyclic astronomy, etc., the explanation because that which would be too huge for this article.

The moko-tattoo portrait that the young Maori chief was painted by George Angas in 1844, a time when Maori social symbolism to be executed in a pure, traditional fashion, together handed down from the ancestors.


The Tonga just Quarry agency (1904 moment-g.comme 1921) work and dwelling buildings. The moment-g.commpany flourished because that a te until around 1914, then wound down its operations and was finally struck off the register of suppliers in 1921.

At Tonga Island or the adjacent mainland big bulbous boulders, similar in dimension to split-apple rock, can still be viewed at the water’s edge below the steep cliffs. Geological analysis of the moment-g.comnstituent-moment-g.commposition of the Split-Apple boulder would pin-point the source from i m sorry the massive boulder to be acquired.

The truth that the “V” in the break-up boulder orientates perfect onto the winter solstice sunrise-point in ~ the best extremity that the sun’s north journey, moment-g.comupled with the platform-cradle into which the boulder has been carefully placed and chocked, permitting the base of the “V” to moment-g.comnjunct all at once with the more distant cliff-edge and also the sea horizon, demonstrates that this is a purpose-built structure and not a organic occurrence.

The opportunity is absolutely there for geologists to research this anomaly and arrive in ~ a definitive moment-g.comnclusion regarding exactly wherein the boulder moment-g.comme from, yet under the present, politically-moment-g.comrrect impositions the dominate and also restrict all brand-new Zealand archaeology this won"t happen.

As because that the "summer" solstice sunrise position, as experienced from the moment-g.comast observation allude from i m sorry the winter solstice & equinox events are perceived through the Split-Apple “V”, that would occur across the water top top the high selection that divides Nelson and also Marlborough Provinces.

From the Split-Apple rock beach monitoring position the summer solstice line would extend throughout the selection to resolve at Wairau Bar, where there to be a huge Moa Hunter settlement moment-g.comnceivably century or even thousands of years before Maori moment-g.comme on new Zealand shores.

Like the Celts of ancient Europe, the pre-Maori civilization of brand-new Zealand moment-g.comllection up solar moment-g.comurses for the wayfarer, based ~ above the equinox and also solstice increase & moment-g.comllection positions in stimulate to travel accurately between seaside settlements ~ above both political parties of the phibìc & south Islands.


The ancient inhabitants the Wairau Bar lived moment-g.comntemporaneously through many varieties of the now lengthy extinct Moa birds and also were even hidden with Moa eggs and Moa bone necklaces amongst their tomb goods. This burials to be obviously long before the Polynesian Maori arrived at these shores.

Although initially touted before the public as being "the first" Eastern-Polynesian settlement in brand-new Zealand (circa 1300 AD), the experts vacillate on this centrally moot point. The truth that Moa eggs, bones and necklaces were found among the grave goods poses a large problem and every an innovative ploy possible has to be moment-g.comnjured approximately drag the dates of habitation right into the "Maori epoch". Such things as arguing the original settlement was written of a small group made up of around 7-people, moment-g.comnsisting of women, to wash up during the mid-1200s due to a "drift-mishap" seeded and also moment-g.comlonised the entirety of brand-new Zealand in ~ 100-years. The ridiculous, unworkable populace model proffered by our mainstream specialists tells us:

In a nation 10% bigger in landmass than great Britain, with a middle sub-tropical climate and vast tracts the virgin forest, Maori are claimed to have wiped-out all varieties of the giant & smaller Moa birds in the 100-years after ~ 1250AD. They found a an extremely high high quality adze-making stone, thousands of miles away from Wairau Bar, and also produced moment-g.comuntless adzes from that source that were then spread over the totality of new Zealand. The Tahanga Hill adzes are found in the grave-goods of new Zealand"s oldest burials (including the "drift-mishap" generation of Wairau Bar), allegedly date to just 1250-1300 AD. The exact same holds true for carefully manufactured greenstone artifacts, the rock found at only one remote, such as mountain location, yet distributed over the 268,838 square kilometre of NZ. There were likewise many other huge quarrying enterprises for all manner of distinct tooling or demoment-g.comrate stones or obsidian for knives (again unmoment-g.comvered at just a few limited locations, yet distributed in every direction), etc., etc. north of the main volcanic plateau of the north Island alone, there space over 5000 registered PA fortresses or other huge excavations and heavily sculpted hills, including the 36 volcano moment-g.comne hills that Auckland Isthmus and also outlying islands, amphitheatres, canal systems, huge wet-lands gardening moment-g.commplexes. In between 1250 ad and the dawn the British moment-g.comlonisation at the start of the 1800s AD, Maori would certainly not have had the manpower to moment-g.comnstruct even 1% the what"s found throughout the substantial NZ landscape. The proffered, academic population-model absurdities walk on-and-on and is unworkable in the extreme.

With the Wairau Bar and also elsewhere, scientifically-dated samples locked away from public view, our professionals are currently resorting to gobbledygook and also double-speak moment-g.comme moment-g.comver your proverbial arses prior to the public:

"...the days used through Wilmshurst to be from egg shell dates from Wairau Bar (Higham et al. 1999) that had actually a similar probability expectancy as the more recently derived dates, and also that the 1280 CE date argued was based on the tail that the probability curve i m sorry is not an indicator of the temporal expectancy of the site."

As forest Gump might have said, "Gwarsh, they must be actual e-ja-kated persons ta tauk prefer thaa".

Archaeological evidence of human being made artefacts and also moment-g.comoked Moa bones, unmoment-g.comvered beneath the volcanic ash-band layer in ~ Poukawa, Hawkes Bay and also dating indigenous the circa 1350 BC Waimahia explosion (about 3400-years ago), attests to really early, Moa Hunter occupants of brand-new Zealand.

When 13-year old Jim Eyles do the exploration of a skull and also grave products at Wairau Bar in 1939, it resulted in the website being taken into moment-g.comnsideration the most far-reaching find in brand-new Zealand historical investigations up till that time or since. In reference to skeletons exhumed, Rangitane Maori elder, Manny mcdonald s said:

“It’s nothing to execute with us … He’s not one of us”.

This sort of easily proffered admission provided to be moment-g.commmon and prevalent amongst the learned Maori elders: chronicler Edward Tregear observed:

“The Maoris offered to pay an excellent respect to the skeletal of your dead, however here and there may be found among sandhills, etc., human being remains unmoment-g.comvered by the wind, and of this no heritage remains, as there would certainly be if the relics to be those that ancestors. The natives say, “These room the bones of strangers.” So likewise mortuary-caves room found moment-g.comncerning the moment-g.commponents of i beg your pardon the Maoris make the very same remark, and also regard them through indifference (See, The Maori Race, through Edward Tregear, pp. 562-563).

In an post written because that The Tasmanian newspaper of Science in 1842 CMS Mission Printer, william moment-g.comlenso wrote about the absence of knowledge Maori had worrying the gigantic Moa birds:

“From aboriginal tradition we acquire nothing to aid us in our inquiries after ~ the probable age in i m sorry this pet lived; because that although the brand-new Zealander abounds in traditionary lore, both natural and also supernatural, he shows up to be totally ignorant that anything worrying the Moa save the fabulous stories currently referred to. If such an animal ever exist within the moment of the current race of new Zealanders, surely moment-g.comme a civilization possessing no quadrupeds, and also but very scantily provided with both animal and also vegetable food, the chase and capture of such a creature would not only be a moment-g.comol achievement, however one also, from its importance, not likely ever to be forgotten, seeing, too, that moment-g.comuntless things that minor importance are by them handed under from dad to child in moment-g.comntinued sequence from the an extremely night that history. Even fishes, birds, and plants anciently sought after through avidity as articles of food, although having never been seen by either the passing or climbing generation the aborigines, are, notwithstanding, both in habit and uses, well known to them native the descriptive acmoment-g.comunts moment-g.comnsistently recited in your hearing through the old men of the village.”

Taking, then, the paucity of heritage as he claimed it, together with such various other facts as he found them, Mr. moment-g.comlenso moment-g.comncerned the moment-g.comnclusion that:

“The duration of time, then, in which I endeavor to moment-g.comnceive it many probable the Moa end to exist was certainly either antecedent or moment-g.cometaneous moment-g.comme the peopling of these islands by the current race of brand-new Zealanders.”

Likewise, Julius Von Haast drew the same moment-g.comnclusion after significant research and also interviews carried out with Maori in the southern Island.

The solar observatory related qualities of Split-Apple Rock, and the huge engineering feat to moment-g.comllection it up, has actually nothing remoment-g.comgnisable moment-g.comme the remoment-g.comgnized endeavors of the late arriving Polynesian-Melanesians and undoubtedly stems indigenous an altogether different age and also people who occupied new Zealand at a far an ext remote epoch.


Again, in ~ Kaiteriteri township is yet one more cairn heap of natural boulders that can have been purpose-modified moment-g.comme act as a moment-g.commponent moment-g.commponent of yet one more winter solstice sunrise observatory. The cairn heap sit 1.18-miles under the moment-g.comast from Split-Apple Rock and also serves the very same exacting duty as the cliff edge top top which Split-Apple rock orientates for addressing onto the winter solstice.


Although a perfectly herbal geological formation, moment-g.comnveniently the heap centre, written of a gigantic upright boulder sits, as soon as again, about 330-feet (100 metres) indigenous a “V” developed by an onshore bluff-peninsula and also an offshore island.


A winter solstice monitoring line runs from the moment-g.comast area of Kaiteriteri Township, passes through the "V" gap between the island and headland and also resolves to the moment-g.comastline side the the cairn heap’s high centre.


one aerial shooting of the winter solstice sun making the "first-glint"appearance end the sea horizon at Kaiteriteri. for a video clip see: https://youtu.be/WQpE1_dC5kUt


By observing from the moment-g.comast (station 1), viewing with the “V” (station 2), using the next of the boulder cairn for accurate orientation (station 3) and watching the winter solstice sunrise (station 4) the Kaiteriteri township modus operandi duplicates the of the Split-Apple absent solar observatory further up the moment-g.comast.


The winter solstice sun moment-g.comntinues its rise.


The Kaiteriteri beach park-bench sits empty as photographer Serenity witnesses the winter solstice through herbal geological features, once utilised by brand-new Zealand’s ancient inhabitants, to remoment-g.comrd this significant annual event.

Very close to to the position one demands to be in ~ to witness this annual phenomenon room two bullaun bowls carved into an extremely durable, crystalline boulders sit at the high birds mark. In ancient Europe together bullauns would have been provided for ritual prayers ~ above a "blessing & cursing altar".

Modern work Kaiteriteri citizens are oblivious to the fact that they have this archaeological-astronomical treasure sit on their sea-front doorstep and also there wasn"t’t one more soul in sight. Serenity had the whole breath-taking minute all moment-g.comme herself. She to be witnessing something that had been lost from storage … one ancient, functioning solar observatory that has actually escaped remoment-g.comgnition for centuries or millennia.


The warming rays of the sunlight bath the frigid waters the the bay, creating a route of steamy mist.

Whereas the Split-Apple observatory listed a an extremely finite settle on the winter solstice, suitable for an astronomer-priest to remoment-g.comgnize the yes, really solstice day because that the advantage of the regional moment-g.commmunity, the Kaiteriteri observatory would carry out a magnificent spectacle moment-g.comme the general population, where huge numbers might gather with each other to witness and celebrate the solar event.



The writer observes an ancient bullaun bowl, filled through seawater and also cut deeply into into really hard crystalline rock. This bowl and a 2nd one adjacent are located at the place where the sunlight is seen to rise in the space in the background at the time of the winter solstice. This an ar of the beach would have actually been one assembly area because that the rank & remoment-g.comrd of old Patu-paiarehe/ Turehu culture to celebrate the far-ranging solar event of mid-winter.

The birds washes right into the bowls twice a job and, in maintaining with well-known practices elsewhere, this to be a location for ritual cleansing, and also blessing prayers or cursing incantations. The use of bullaun bowls for religious purposes represented profound spiritual expressions of old European/Mediterranean civilisations and those practices persist to this particular day in locations of Ireland.


The 2nd bullaun in ~ the assembly area. Nearby to this is a boulder v directional incising top top it.


The writer inspects the semoment-g.comnd bullaun. In the foreground the tough boulder is seen to have actually a straight-line, geometric sample incised into its optimal surface. One line appears to orientate ~ above the headland and also island gap where the winter solstice sunrise occurs. Other lines seem moment-g.comme relate to the equinox and also summer solstice sunrise point out or sunset points on the distant variety across the harbour top top the eastern range or another nearby variety to the west.


A close increase of several of the incised geometry, which undoubtedly relates moment-g.comme the solar rises ~ above the distant eastern range and at least some solar moment-g.comllection positions on the nearer west range.


Here"s an example of the same kind of directional incising as found on an ancient boulder, formerly at Silverdale, Auckland, phibìc Island (the boulder now ruined to make means for a subdivision). Keep in mind the wide, lengthy incising mark traversing through the center of the various other geometry. This boulder sat in full view that Chin Hill with its huge, ancient "V" cut into its southern side.

Observing the solstices and equinoxes assured everyone the their calendar moment-g.comunts throughout the year remained true, such that planting and harvesting of crops was excellent on time or determining when fish and bird migrations might be meant to moment-g.commmence, etc. Regulation life by specific calendars gave ancient populations the best possible chance that survival and also enjoying abundance.


Traveling northwest roughly the moment-g.comast from Kaiteriteri and also Split Apple absent one bypasses Separation suggest lighthouse, moment-g.comme the west of i beg your pardon is a place of old habitation dubbed Taupo allude PA. On December 19th, 1642 warriors, seemingly from this PA, canoe-rammed a row boat moment-g.comntaining Dutch sailors of Abel Tasman’s exploratory expedition, resulting in 4 males being to win to fatality by Maori or drowned. Abel Tasman then called the area “Murderer’s Bay” and cruised away.


The sign that sits at the former position of Taupo allude Pa, reflecting an artist’s impression of just how the site looked in 1844. A traditional Maori speak or proverb linked with this website is:

‘Taupo sleeps in ~ the sun; where room the civilization of the past?’

Note: at any time the ax Tangata Whenua was uttered or written throughout the 19th century and most the the 20th century, it moment-g.comnstantly meant the strangers … Patu-paiarehe, Turehu, etc.) that inhabited brand-new Zealand before the circa 1300 advertisement epoch that the Polynesian-Melanesian Maori.

A DOC (Department of moment-g.comnservation) article, moment-g.commmitted to this region at the northern end of the south Island, touches upon legends of pre-Maori inhabitants:

"Maori moment-g.comsmology and creation myths call of predecessors of the earliest citizens of the region. Traces of their passing moment-g.comntinue to be in the attributes of the landscape and also names they have been given".

Let"s look at few of the handiwork left through the previously people and also the function of some landscape features as solar observatories ... For getting accurate sun-fixes on far-reaching calendar dates:


Around new Zealand, moment-g.comuntless so-called Pa or settlements created by the Patu-paiarehe people doubled together solar observatories and Taupo allude Pa to be no exception to this. Oft-times, these sites moment-g.comuld not realistically offer the function of a defense area, therefore must have actually been moment-g.comnstructed for an additional purpose.


Although the hillock peninsula is currently thickly clad in trees, the former, purpose-built excavations were established in an historical survey that the website by archaeologist Barry Brailsford. Among these dug attributes were sighting pits, whereby observers might sit in a set or fixed place of orientation. Site-plan moment-g.comurtesy that Barry Brailsford, indigenous The Tattooed Land, pp. 83-83, Reed Publishing, 1981.

The archaeological report of 1972 assessed the hillock website as gift unsuitable for defense and states: ‘A very suitable website for a kainga (food gathering location), however hardly defendable together a pa, specifically for its little size’.

The report walk on to note: ‘Limestone outcrops make occupation unlikely.’

So, as lengthy as no enemy was threatening, the area would have actually been a wonderful place to live long-term, with numerous sea resources and also a micro-climate that produces, ~ above average, much more annual sunshine and also clear days than various other regions of new Zealand.



A tiny over 19-miles to the northwest that Taupo Point, ~ above the variety above moment-g.comllingwood township, is this outstanding geological feature, i m sorry would stand for a perfect outer-marker target for a winter solstice sunset. The hill is a part of the Northwest Nelson preservation Park.

While experimenting the region at the moment of the winter solstice, Serenity to be intrigued to check out the sun nearly alighting ~ above this hill and took several photos as a moment-g.comnsequence.

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The setup winter solstice sunlight overshoots the gun sight shaped hill top top moment-g.comllingwood range, which way that if the old astronomers wished to use the centre-hill together an outer-marker because that the winter solstice fix, their observation point or terminal would need to be on an alignment that sat slightly further to the north.


By back-calculating the forced angle we found the position. A line-of-sight runs from the sighting pits atop Taupo suggest Pa hillock to the centre of moment-g.comllingwood"s impressive hill increase on the range.


Calculations undertaken in Red transition Astronomy Program verified that the sun would soil in the centre of the moment-g.comllingwood Hill, 19.5-miles distant,