Revista Española de Cardiología is an international scientific journal specialized to the publication of research posts on cardiovascular medicine. The journal, published due to the fact that 1947, is the main publication the the Spanish culture of Cardiology and also founder of the REC Publications newspaper family. Short articles are released in both English and Spanish in its digital edition.
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Physical task in adults is associated with a reduced risk the obesity, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, and premature death. Over there is considerable evidence the cardiovascular condition has its origins in childhood and adolescence. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, blood pressure, and adiposity in young human being tend to persist over their lifetimes (tracking).1 there is also evidence that behavioral patterns of physical task in childhood are maintained throughout adulthood.2 Childhood and adolescence room therefore vital to the major prevention the cardiovascular condition and other conditions connected with a sedentary lifestyle. This is an especially true when we take into account the an obstacle involved in editing and enhancing adult lifestyles.
Although the is commonly assumed that more active youngsters will have greater levels of physics fitness, and also that the partnership is causal, the assumption may no longer be precious in the irradiate of current knowledge. Only a little amount that the sports in different measures of physical fitness in children and teens can it is in attributed to physical activity. Actions of physical activity and physical fitness also show great variability. In bespeak to examine the relationship between these 2 principles in more detail, the is perhaps finest to start by specifying them.
The state "physical activity," "physical exercise," and also "physical fitness" are frequently confused. Although they are closely related, they need to not it is in treated together synonyms. "Physical activity" ad to any type of bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle i m sorry requires intake of energy. "Physical exercise," ~ above the other hand, is characterized as any planned, structured, and also systematic physical activity designed to improve or keep one or an ext components of physical fitness. "Physical fitness" in turn can be interpreted as a measure up of the volume to carry out physical activity and/or physical exercise that integrates the majority of the bodily functions (skeletomuscular, cardio-respiratory, hematocirculatory, endocrine-metabolic, and also psycho-neurological) affiliated in bodily movement. Physical fitness has historically been conceptualized as comprising 3 components: cardio-respiratory volume (CRC), strength, and agility. Over time, the focus has change from strength and agility to facets which are more directly pertained to health, and has led to the coining the the term "health-related physical fitness." return the tests used to determine health-related physics fitness are rather heterogeneous, they encompass cardio-respiratory capacity, strength and also muscle resistance, flexibility, and body composition (particularly adiposity). In children, they also include speed and agility.
although a huge part that the variability in physics fitness is gene determined, eco-friendly factors, and specifically physical exercise, likewise influence physical fitness. In children, the relationship between physical task and physical fitness is less clear. It has actually been argued that physical activity in children and younger teens is unlikely to change physical fitness due to the fact that it is largely unpredictable and non-systematic, and occurs in fairly short bursts. The absence of agreement in between studies which have examined the relationship in between physical task and physics fitness in kids and teens could be as result of the selection of techniques used to measure up both physical fitness and also physical activity. Once trying to advice the results of physics activity, the is necessary to take into account the difficulty of obtaining precious and an accurate measurements.
results from the european Youth heart Study published in the current problem of Revista Española de Cardiología by Ortega et al3 assistance the hypothesis that teenagers who deserve to be taken into consideration active, ie, those that carry out at the very least 60 min of middle to extreme physical task daily, have better cardiovascular capacity. It is a meticulous and rigorous article which tackles a topic i beg your pardon is of particular relevance at a time as soon as sedentary behavior and poor physics fitness are significantly prevalent among adolescents in the majority of developed countries. This tendencies room paralleled by rises in the frequency the overweight and obesity come alarming proportions in some Mediterranean countries. The study's main contribution is to imply that, although there is a well-established association between physical task and CRC, the is not clear the compliance with current recommendations ~ above the quantity and intensity that physical task in adolescents will be sufficient to achieve a healthy and balanced CRC. In bespeak to inspection this aspect further, they used accelerometers to measure up the frequency and intensity the physical activity and VO2máx with a cycloergometer to measure CRC. Lock conclude that teenagers who do at least 60 min of moderate to extreme physical task daily are much more likely to have actually a healthy and balanced CRC, separately of the level of sex-related maturity and adiposity.
As the study's contributions room of good practical importance, that is worth examining details aspects the the relationship in between physical activity and physical fitness in much more detail, as well the relationship of these v health.
Relationship in between Physical task and physical Fitness in Children and also Adolescents
It is generally assumed the physical task is regarded physical fitness and also that physically active children will thus be in better physical condition. For part authors, although they might not make it explicit, this partnership is likewise causal, and it is frequently alleged that the evidence indicates that just high intensity physical activity (over 6 MET) improves physical fitness. Come date, although the data native the examine in inquiry seem to allude in that direction, together affirmations have no solid scientific basis, as we will see below. In the very first place, it should be discussed that the relationship between physical activity and physics fitness is just weak or moderate and in some researches it is no significant. Furthermore, day-to-day physical activity explains only a relatively small relationship of aerobic capacity.4
several reasons have actually been put forward to describe this weak association, consisting of the reality that measures of physical activity and physical fitness vary significantly in terms of their validity and also reliability, the moderate-high intensity physical task in children and also young civilization is not maintained over prolonged periods, and also that the relationship in between physical fitness and physical activity in kids and teenagers can be masking at least in component by the heterogeneity that the samples in researches of children and also adolescents.5
It is true the the measurement of physical activity in children and also young people is topic to numerous conditioning factors which threaten validity and reliability. The constraints of measure up physical task using scales and questionnaires have been encountered in excellent reviews so that is not vital to go into detail on that aspect here.6 that is worth pointing out, however, that although the measure up of physical task using accelerometers is certainly the many objective method, the is not exempt indigenous serious restrictions which additionally threaten that is validity and also reliability. In the first place, accelerometers are negative at recording certain movements which involve minimal vertical displacements, such as pedaling. These kind a far-reaching proportion the children and also adolescents' leisure-time physical activities in some European countries, consisting of Sweden, wherein data for the current study were collected. In the 2nd place, the cut-points offered to categorize the strongness of physical task were characterized under laboratory conditions and also are not an extremely representative that the movements youngsters and teens make under organic conditions. Finally, whilst over there is a stringent necessity to provide data ~ above non-response as soon as studies usage questionnaires to measure physical activity, and also it may even be crucial to analysis differences between responders and non-responders, this is no the case when accelerometers are used to measure up physical activity. The proportion of measurements which are discounted because they do not satisfy inclusion criteria (at the very least 3 days through a minimum that 10 h of documents per work in the Ortega et al study) is regularly not reported. Our endure in measure up physical activity in youngsters and adolescents using accelerometers leads united state to doubt that there might be differences between those who fulfill inclusion criteria and also those who execute not in regards to patterns of physical activity.
Physical task and physics Fitness. The role of Obesity and Genetic Determinants
number of studies have shown that adult people who regularly perform physical activity are less likely to build health problems. Likewise, over there is proof of an inverse relationship between physical fitness and also the risk of ending up being ill and of dying. It has actually been reported the physical fitness far better predicts wellness outcomes in adults than physical activity.7 In children, data from cross-sectional8 and also prospective9 studies have actually been used to imply increasing physical task is insufficient, together future cardiovascular hazard is more dependent on physical fitness than on the lot of physical task performed. Nevertheless, some disagreements might lead united state to question this affirmation.
Firstly, the relationship in between physical task and physics fitness, and the relationship between the latter and also several cardiovascular risk components cannot it is in analyzed without taking right into account numerous confounding factors, particularly adiposity and also genetic determinants. The results of an intervention study10 indicate that just high intensity physical exercise has any effect top top CRC in obese adolescents, and also that both moderate and also high soot physical exercise modifies adiposity. Top top the other hand, a more recent cross-sectional study11 proved that both the total amount that physical activity and intense physical task were associated with a far better CRC, although just intense physical task reduced adiposity. Ours opinion is that, offered that both physical fitness and adiposity have actually a marked hereditary component, teenagers who room genetically predisposed to bad physical problem or obesity are less likely to get involved in extreme physical activity. To further complicate the situation, hereditary inheritance deserve to also impact the relationship in between CRC and also cardiovascular risk. This has actually been displayed to be the situation in researches which have attached polymorphisms that the angiotensin converting enzyme and also CRC top top the one hand, and others i m sorry have shown an association in between low birth weight (which is in part genetically determined) v a low CRC in childhood and adolescence.
The previously mentioned studies additionally raise questions around the directionality the the association between physical task and physical fitness. Because that example, ~ 23 year of follow-up, researcher from the Amsterdam Growth and also Health Longitudinal examine concluded the there is a significant though weak association in between physical activity and aerobic capacity throughout adolescence, return the direction that the connection was no clear. They likewise concluded the physical task in adolescence to be not associated with aerobic volume in adulthood, which says that hereditary factors can be more important than environmental determinants in determining the relationship between physical task and aerobic capacity.12 some of our team's newly published data13 indigenous the review of a routine to promote leisure-time physical task in school-age youngsters showed a palliation in adiposity and an innovation in lipid profiles without substantial change in physics fitness. The routine was handle to children aged 9-10 year from 20 colleges in the Cuenca district (Spain). Physical activity was quantified by compare counts per minute videotaped by accelerometer during each of 3 weekly 90 min sessions matches those job on which there to be no session (available at: www.movidavida.org).
another noteworthy facet of the examine by Ortega et al room the differences in the stamin of the association in between physical task and physics fitness when sex is taken right into account. The authors indicate that these results might stem from the socio-cultural differences between boys and also girls. Although we acknowledge that over there is part difficultly in explaining this finding, we believe, as stated earlier, the genetic components should be thought about as a possible explanation for a an extensive amount the the variability in physics fitness. This might be as result of the method genetics influence fat distribution and also aerobic capacity, as well as their effect on the level of testosterone and also other hormones related with strength and also flexibility. Together the writer indicate, future studies in this area should attempt come clarify the causes of distinctions in physical task and CRC between boys and also girls.
In summary, the research by Ortega et al is significant for that rigor and precision in measure physical activity and physics fitness, and also the reality that it provides data top top the relationship between recommendations because that physical task and physical fitness, and also on the importance of gender in that relationship. The outcomes of this study imply hypotheses regarding the role of gender, genetics, and, possibly, various other environmental components in the relationship in between physical task and CRC. It likewise highlights the much lower prevalence of low CRC among adolescent boys in Sweden contrasted to Spain (9% vs 19%, respectively). The figures are comparable in females (20% and 17%, respectively).
The finest Preventive Strategy in Adolescents: carry out Opportunities because that Physical Activity
Nonetheless, back we indeed need come further explore the relationship between physical task and physics fitness, we have to not shed sight of the horizon. Physical task is a behavior and also physical fitness, a state. It is in ~ our way to promote energetic behaviors i beg your pardon can aid modify the level of physical fitness. Physics fitness is a result not only of genetic conditioning but additionally of individual and also social determinants. Together we are presently unable to modify genetic determinants, we require to emphasis on editing and enhancing individual and also social factors of physics activity. Despite some authors' doubts that physical exercise below recommended level will affect physical fitness, practice at this levels may however still lead to renovations in self-esteem, academic performance, or bone density.
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there is, then, one urgent must provide an ext opportunities because that physical activity in adolescents. These might include the provision of "cycle lanes" to access educational and recreation centers, easy accessibility to sporting activities facilities, parks with "fun" jogging circuits, pedestrian-safe cities, physical activity during free-time in education centers, and the promo of out-of-school, non-competitive physical practice programs, and games. At the same time, we need to ensure that the act of physical exercise is other to it is in valued and appreciated in the adolescents' environment. To execute that we need to increase awareness amongst families, educators, and also other social agents that fostering competitive and, particularly, non-competitive physical exercise is the best way to for sure a healthier future for the young people of today.
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Correspondence: Dr. V. Martínez-Vizcaíno. Centro de Estudios Socio-Sanitarios. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Santa Teresa Jornet, s/n. Edificio Melchor Cano. 16071 Cuenca. España. E-mail: Vicente.Martinez