At convergent boundaries, tectonic bowl collide v each other. The occasions that take place at these borders are connected to the species of key — oceanic or continental — that space interacting.

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Subduction Zones and also Volcanoes

At part convergent boundaries, an oceanic bowl collides with a continent plate. Oceanic crust tends to it is in denser and thinner 보다 continental crust, therefore the denser oceanic crust gets bent and pulled under, or subducted, beneath the lighter and also thicker continent crust. This creates what is dubbed a subduction zone. Together the oceanic late sinks, a deep oceanic trench, or valley, is created at the leaf of the continent. The crust proceeds to be required deeper into the earth, wherein high heat and pressure cause trapped water and also other gasses to be released from it. This, in turn, makes the basic of the crust melt, creating magma

The magma created at a subduction ar rises up toward the earth"s surface and also builds increase in magma chambers, whereby it feeds and also creates volcanoes top top the overriding plate. As soon as this magma find its method to the surface through a vent in the crust, the volcano erupts, expelling lava and also ash. An instance of this is the band of energetic volcanoes that encircle the Pacific Ocean, regularly referred to as the Ring that Fire.

Illustration depicting how island arcs room formed.

A subduction zone is also generated as soon as two oceanic plates collide — the larger plate is required under the younger one — and also it leader to the development of chains of volcanic islands well-known as island arcs. Examples include the Mariana archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean and also the Aleutian Islands, turn off the shore of Alaska.

Since the collision and subduction of plates is not a smooth process, large, powerful earthquakes are another phenomenon that result from this form of interaction. Earthquakes produced in a subduction region can also give rise to tsunamis. A tsunami is a vast ocean wave resulted in by a sudden shift on the ocean floor, such as an undersea earthquake. If the wave reaches land, it can cause incredible destruction, like the eastern Tsunami, i m sorry killed an ext than 200,000 civilization in 11 countries throughout the Indian Ocean region in December 2004.

Collision Zones and also Mountains

What happens once two continent plates collide? due to the fact that the rock consisting of continental bowl is typically lighter and less thick than oceanic rock, it is also light to obtain pulled under the earth and turned right into magma. Instead, a collision between two continental plates crunches and also folds the rock at the boundary, lifting that up and also leading come the development of mountains and also mountain ranges.

An instance of this mountain-building procedure is the Himalayan variety in southerly Asia. Containing the greatest mountain peaks in the world and traversing the modern-day countries of India, Pakistan, China (Tibet), Bhutan, and also Nepal, the Himalayas were developed by the collision that the Indian and also Eurasian Plates. This process began ~ the breakup of Pangaea, when India became an island continent and began travel northward towards Asia. The island of India slammed into Asia around 40 come 50 million years earlier near contemporary Tibet, crushing and folding the plates to form the Himalayan mountain range. Its finest known peaks, mount Everest and K2, are among several that measure over 8,000 meters (26,000 feet) high at your summits. Due to the fact that the Indian plate is proceeding in the northward movement right into Asia, the Himalayas continue to grow higher each year by small amounts (5 come 20 mm or 1 customs per year).

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Image credits: Animations and also illustration that oceanic-oceanic bowl collision adjusted from illustrations by woman Russell indigenous Jacquelyne Kious and Robert Tilling, This Dynamic Earth, USGS, pp. 37 and 40.