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Bone markings room invaluable come the identification of separation, personal, instance bones and also bony piece and help in the understanding of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. Lock are provided by clinicians and also surgeons, specifically orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and also anatomists. Return the untrained eye may overlook bone markings together contours the the bone, they room not together simple. Bone markings play critical role in human and also animal anatomy and also physiology. The functionality of bone markings varieties from allowing joints to slide previous each various other or lock skeleton in place, providing structural assistance to muscle and also connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and protection come nerves, vessels, and also connective tissue. Knowledge the prestige of bone markings offers a new appreciation and understanding of bony anatomy and also its practical relationships v soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - spicy bony angulations that may serve together bony or soft tissue attachments but often are used for precise anatomical description. Examples encompass the superior, inferior, and also acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angle of the occiput.

Body - This usually refers to the largest, most prominent segment the bone. Examples include the diaphysis or column of long bones prefer the femur and also humerus.

Condyle - refers to a large prominence, which regularly provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt of the pressure exerted from the joint. Examples incorporate the knee joint (hinge joint), developed by the femoral lateral and also medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and also medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has actually an occipital condyle i m sorry articulates v atlas(C1) and accounts for approximately 25 levels of cervical flexion and also extension. 

Crest - A elevated or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are regularly the sites whereby connective organization attaches muscle come bone. The iliac comb is found on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main part of the tower of a long bone. Lengthy bones, including the femur, humerus, and also tibia, all have actually a shaft.

Epicondyle - A importance that sit atop of a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective organization to bone, offering support come this musculoskeletal system. Examples include the femoral medial and lateral epicondyles and also humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, usually at the bone"s proximal and also distal poles. That usually has actually a larger diameter than the shaft (diaphysis). The epiphysis is crucial for bone growth because it sits nearby to the physeal line, also known as the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that forms a share with an additional flat bone or an additional facet, together producing a gliding joint. Instances can be checked out in the facet joints of the vertebrae, which allow for flexion and extension that the spine. 

Fissure - An open up slit in a bone that usually dwellings nerves and blood vessels. Examples incorporate superior and inferior orbital fissure.

Foramen - A hole through which nerves and blood vessels pass. Examples encompass supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen on the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Below it may receive an additional articulating bone or act come support brain structures. Examples encompass trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface that runs along the size of a courage or nerve, providing room to stop compression by surrounding muscle or external forces. Examples encompass a radial groove and the groove for the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent expansion of bone the forms part of a joint. The is separated indigenous the column of the bone by the neck. The head is usually spanned in hyaline cartilage within a synovial capsule. It is the main articulating surface ar with the surrounding bone, developing a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The leaf of any type of flat bone. It have the right to be provided to define a bone"s borders accurately. Because that example, the leaf of the temporal bone articulating with the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin that the temporal bone. And also vice versa, the edge of the occipital bone articulating through the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin the the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends in ~ the bone, i beg your pardon may provide passage and protection to nerves, vessels, and even sound. Examples incorporate external acoustic meatus and internal auditory meatus.

Neck - The segment in between the head and also the column of a bone. That is frequently demarcated native the head by the existence of the physeal line in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal line remnant) in adults. That is often separated into the operation neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which may represent the old epiphyseal plate, is often demarcated by its attachment to capsular ligaments. The surgical neck is often an ext distal and is demarcated by the website on the neck the is most commonly fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck operation obliquely from the greater tuberosity to just inferior come the humeral head. The operation neck operation horizontally and also a few centimeters distal to the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone i beg your pardon often, but not always, gives stabilization come an nearby articulating bone. The articulating bone will certainly slide into and out that the notch, guiding the variety of motion of the joint. Examples incorporate the trochlear notch on the ulna, radial notch the the ulna, suprasternal notch, and the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved component of a bone that offers structural assistance to the remainder of the bone. Examples incorporate the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus that the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any kind of organ or tissue. Examples incorporate paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous procedure - A raised, sharp elevation of bone whereby muscles and connective tissue attach. That is various than a normal process in that a spinous procedure is much more pronounced.

Trochanter - A large prominence ~ above the next of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and most dense connective tissues attach to the trochanter. The most notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters the the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prestige where muscles and also connective tissues attach. Its role is comparable to the of a trochanter. Examples encompass the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prestige where connective tissues attach. Examples incorporate the greater and also lesser tubercle that the humerus.